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Translations of Words and Terms from 1701 Census
(Part 1)



Go back to the 1701 census

I have gone over the pages and given you the translations (if I gave the translation on another page I didn't bother giving it again if it showed up elsewhere)

The spelling was really strange. I don't know if it's a case of that's the way they spelled way back then or they just basically spelled the way it sounded. I didn't correct any spelling mistakes, I left everything as it was on the original.

signed Sue O'Neill

NOMS DES HABITANS - Occupants name

NOM DES PECHEURS QUE CHAQUE HABITANT HIVERNE - Name of fisherman that stays with occupant during the winter


NOM DES PECHEUR QUE CHAQUE HABITANT FAIT REVENIR A FRANCE –Name of fisherman that each occupant sends back to France

CE QUE LE ROY LEUR DONNE DE GRAVE – What the King gives them (I really don’t know what the expression de grave means) the word grave means serious in french but this is not what the word used here meant.

Sr. is seigneur - in English it means lord.

Il doit amener ses deux compaignons – He must bring his two companions

deux pecheurs – two fishermen


Pour x chaloupes – for x launch (meaning small boat probably a row boat)

et un compagnons l’autre doit venir de france – and one companion, the other must come from France

Monsr. leur fair venir de france – Mister or Monsignor (not really sure on this one) is having sent from France

Il passe en france et doit amener trois equipages 9 homme – He is coming by way of France and must bring 3 teams 9 men

Ils doivent amener chaqun leur compaignons – they must each bring their own companion.

ordre de Courtbiau de luy amener 9 hommes – orders from Courtbiau to bring him 9 men

Il doit luy venir un navire – There is a a ship coming to him

il est oblige de lui amener 6 hommes – he is obliged to bring him 6 men

Il doit amener ses deux camarade – he must bring his two friends

le maitre grave doit amener 3 autres hommes – the master ? must bring 3 other men

son fils doit amener un batiment et 5 esquipages – his son must bring a ship and 5 teams

remplassement –replacement

ils doivent amener tous trois chacuns leur deux compaignons – all three of them must each bring their two companions

il doint amener trois esquipaged de france – he must bring 3 teams from France

Les deux metres de Challoupe – the two masters of Challoupe

doivent amener chacun leur deux hommes- must each bring 2 men

il doivent amener ses deux camarade et trois autres homme – they must bring 2 friends and three other men

doit les amener de france – must bring from France

doit luy faire venir deux compaignons – must send him 2 companions

elle a donnay ordre – she has given the order

de luy amener deux equipages de – to bring two teams from

La veuve – the widow

a plaisance ce 8e octobre – in Plaisance this 8th of October

Transcribed by Sue O/Neill (October 1998)



Translations of Words and Terms from 1701 Census
(Part 2)



Go back to the 1701 census

For better understanding of the situation at the time, it may be necessary to clarify a few words such as, to answer Sue O'Neill question (above):

- "grave" which should be understood as referring to a harbor with its fishing infrastructures whose operation was granted by the King to shipowners. Graves were classified into four sets depending on the number of
"chaloupes" or fishing boats who could operate.Half of the graves registered in 1698 were still in the hands of the same owners in 1713.

In 1698, Plaisance is divided in 3 areas in which lived forty families :

- the area of the Fort includes four houses, a grave that can accomodate 40 chaloupes and an hospital near the lime kiln, - the area of the big grave to the right of the bottleneck, includes 25 houses employing a hundred of chaloupes,
- the area of Pointe-Verte includes 5 houses and a grave that can accomodate 20 chaloupes

A few years before the 1701 census, in February 1697, a regulation stipulates that for these regions, a maximum of 60 committed fishermen may go every spring.  At Plaisance, the need for labor was high and in 1690, the Governor of the colony thought that the numbers of "chaloupes" that each resident fisherman could operate should perhaps be listed to three. A "chaloupe" s a fine rowing boat with a 3-man crew :

- a master (Maître or Mr for short) an arimier, a beaussoin and sometimes a boy.  The master is always the most experienced man in either a boat or ashore.  When at sea he steers the chaloupe and selects the fishing banks, ashore he coordinates the drying.  The beaussoin comes second in the crew both in experience and salary. He  stands at the bow of the chaloupe, drops the anchor on the fishing bank and guide the chaloupe to the docks.  The arimier is responsible for piling cods in the chaloupe.

Ashore, while the chaloupes are fishing, the grave-teams lead by a master (Maître de grave) wash, clean, salt and pile cods.  At a minimum, each team consists of a "Maître de grave" , a decoleur who slice the head and separate the liver, the eggs (rogue) and the swinbladder (naut) a saleur, important person as the conservation of the fish depends on his know-how and a boy handyman to the team. A grave team of four men can provide dressing for two chaloupes of cods.  issued from The Traité général des pesches, author Duhamel du Monceau in Encyclopédie, drawings (Paris, Éditions Panckoucke, 1793)
Just a last note.

1701 Census
- "Des habitan(t)s du Petit Plaisance", it should read :

Desablon - Deux pêcheurs - Mathurin Le Gay de St Malo / Jacques Richard de St Malo les deux "Maîtres" de chaloupe and not "mètres" (measurment)

Binic is a town not very far from the that of Saint Malo (Britany)

Transcribed by Monique Baladier (2009)



Page Last Updated March 26, 2013 (Craig Peterman)

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