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Government Positions and General Information


Students admitted members of the Law Society--
D.I. Green,
Thomas F. Walsh,
R. Hayward,
William Hogan,
William Kitchen,
Hugh H. Carter,
Stanley Carter

Law Society Benchers--
Hon. R. J. Pinsent, treasurer;
Matthew W. Walbank, secretary;
Hon, Joseph I. Little,
F. B. T. Carter,
W. V. Whiteway,
Thomas J. Kough, sub-librarian;
H. T. B. Wood.

Central District,
John V. Nugent, sheriff;
Lionel T. Chancey, sub-sheriff;
Southern District,
John Stephenson, sheriff;
Frederick Cox, deputy sheriff for district of Burgeo and La Poile.

Hon. George H. Emerson,
Thos. J. Kough,
Hon. Robert J. Pinsent,
William V. Whiteway,
M. W. Walbank.

Hon. Sir. H. W. Hoyles, knight, chief-justice;
P. W., Carter, registrar;
James Bayly, marshall.

Robert R. W. Lilly, and Henry T. B. Wood, St. John's;
Lewis W. Emerson, Harbor Grace.

A steamer is employed every year to take a judge of the Supreme Court and officers on Circuit North and South.The Northern Circuit Court is held at Twilingate, Fogo, Greenspond, Bonavista, Trinity, Heart's Content, and Brigus every autumn, and Harbor Grace every spring and autumn.

The Southern Circuit Court is held at Burgeo, Harbor Briton, Burin, Great Placentia and Ferryland, every autumn.


Central Circuit Court--
Spring term commences 20th April and to continue three weeks--
Autumn term, 20th October and to continue to three weeks with power to the presiding judge to prolong the term from day to day, not exceeding six days in all.

Sessions after Term--
The second Monday in February, March, and July, and to continue for a period not exceeding six days.

Supreme Court--
Spring term commences 20th May, to continue three weeks; autumn term, 20th November and to continue three weeks;, with power to the judges to prolong the term from day to day, not exceeding six days in all.

Sessions after Term--The first Monday in February, March, April, and July, and to continue for a period not exceeding six days.


Returnable into the Supreme and Circuit Courts, for taking affidavits, and recognizance of Bail in any Suit depending in said Courts.

Central District--
Matthew W. Walbank and Henry T. B. Wood, St. John's;
Martin Williams, Bay Bulls.

Northern District--
Lewis W. Emerson, John Fitzgerald, Harbor Grace;
Israel L. McNeil, Carbonear;
John C. Nuttall, John Wilcox, Brigus;
John Lewis, Lower Island Cove;
W. S. Green, George W. R. Hierlihy, Bay Roberts;
William Holden, Harbor Main;
James L. Mews, Hants Harbor;
William Christian, Old Perlican;
Benjamin Sweetland, Robert Bayly, Trinity;
Alexander Bremner, Catalina;
John Lawrence, Bonavista;
John T. Oakley, William Lang, Greenspond;
James Fitzgerald, Fogo;
John Peyton, Twillingate;
Charles Newhook, New Harbor;
Michael Murphy, King's Cove;
John M. Maddock, Port de Grave;
Robert J. Pinsent, sen., Labrador.

Southern District--
Edmund Hanrahan, Ferryland;
Francis L. Bradshaw, Placentia;
Thomas El Collett, Harbor Buffet;
John Hooper, Port aux Basque;
James Pittman, Lemaline;
W. J Coen, Grand Bank;
Francis A. Parsens, Burgeo;
Thomas Read, La Poile;
James Murphy, St. Mary's;
Thomas Birkett, Harbor Breton;
James Moran, Thomas Winter, Burin;
Nelson Baille, Oderin;
Joseph G. Haddock, Fortune (Fortune Bay);
James P. LeGros, Petites;
Michael J. O'Mara, St. John's.

Robert John Pinsent, sen.; judge; he is also ex-officio magistrate and coroner;
Jonas Purchase, bailiff.

This Court is held under the provisions of an Act of the Local Legislature and is summary in its character.

The people congregating on the Labrador are generally very peaceable; but, in the excitement at the at the height of the herring fishery, disputes often arise consequent upon a system of fishing called barring which are by this Court summarily settled, and which otherwise might be the cause of much useless litigation. The Court is only held during the summer season, and the judge occupies, jointly with the collector, the vessel employed as Revenue cruiser on the Labrador. The number of cases adjudicated upon rarely exceeds twenty.

Daniel Woodley Prowse, judge;
Robert T. W. Lilly, clerk

This is a Court of summary process, having jurisdiction in civil cases to the extent of $40. The judges are police magistrates, ex-officio, with all their jurisdiction and authority. All constables and police officers are under the supervision of judges of this Court.

Conception Bay--
Joseph Peters, Harbor Grace;
Israel L. McNeil, Carbonear;
John Wilcox, Brigus.

Trinity Bay--
Benjamin Sweetland, Trinity;
James L. Mews, Old Perlican

David Candow.

John Peyton

Edmund Hanrahan, Ferryland;
Martin Williams, Bay Bulls.

Placentia and St. Mary's--
Francis L. Bradshaw, Placentia;
James Murphy, St. Mary's.

Grand Bank--
W. J. Coen.

James Moran, M.D.; Burin

Fortune Bay--
Thomas Birkett, Harbor Breton

La Poile--
Thomas Reed

From the Island of Newfoundland--
The judges of the Supreme Court, the Members of the Executive Council, and Peter W. Carter,
Thomas Bennett,
John Kent,
Ambrose Shea,
Edmund Hanrahan,
hon. Edward D. Shea,
James J. Rogerson,
Henry J. Kerr, captain Heysham, R. N.,
Liet. Bellett, R. N.,
captain Parish, R. N.,
lieut. Musgrave, R. N.,
captain Russell, G. T. Pasley, R. N.,
lieut Henry St. Vincent Jenkins, R. N.

Central District--
Stephen Rendell,
hon. John Winter,
Joseph Peters.

Southern District--
Francis L. Bradshaw,
Thomas E. Gaden,
James Murphy,
Thomas Read,
Thomas Renouf,
Edward Evans,
Thomas E. Collett,
Francis Berreau,
Robert H. Dawe,
John Walsh,
John O'Neill,
Owen Pine Richard Marshall,
William F. Gallop,
Patrick Furlong,
Thomas Winter,
Philip Sorsoleil,
Martin Williams,
John W. English,
Thomas Birkett,
John Jordon,
Richard McGrath,
John Hooper,
Thomas R. Bennett,
Francis Read,
W. J. Coen,
Thomas O'Reilly,
James Pittman,
Henry Benning,
Michael Gorman.

Northern District--
Benjamin Sweetland,
John Peyton,
John T. Oakley,
John Tilley,
James L. Mews,
Robert Ollerhead,
Alexander Bremer,
John G. Skelton,
Thomas Batchings,
John Munn,
William H. Ridley,
David Casdow,
William S. Green,
John Rorke,
James L. Prendergast,
John Wilcox,
James Keeping,
Charles Newhook,
Philip Levesconte,
James Fitzgerald,
Joseph Peters,
Lewis W. Emerson,
Israel McNeil,
John Lewis,
Reuben Bemister,
George Skelton,
John McCarthy,
Michael Murphy,
James Saint,
Peter Ward,
James Alcock,
William Stirling,
Joseph J. Pearce,
Nathan Norman,
William Lang,
William Holder,
Hay Findlater,
Julia Sheehan,
William P. Tailor,
Gilbert H. Cole,
John W. Owne,
George W. H. Edward T. Pike,
James L. Noonan,
Alexander W. Bremner,
George Rutherford,
Patrick Nowlan,
James Tarelian,
John M. Maddock,
Benjamin T. H. Gould,
William J. S. Donnelly,
James Burden,
James Winser,
Charles Furey,
John Bartlett,
Robert Leamon,
John Mifflen,
Samuel Evans,
James Murphy,
William Lethbridge,
Elias Cornish Watson,
John White,
Daniel Green,
Robert Dawe,
James Gardner,
Daniel Green,
Robert Hawe,
William Meadus.

St. George's Bay--
Horatio A. Forrest,
Edwin Alexander

Nathan Norman,
Thomas R. Crockwell,
Donald A. Smith,
William B. Bendal,
Sampson Daw,
Thomas G. Larmour,
George Goodridge.


St. John's--
Hon. George H. Emerson,
Robert Prowse,
George F. Bown,
Frederick B. T. Carter,
Robert R. W. Lilly,
hon. Edward Morris,
William H. Mare,
Matthew W. Walbank,
Thomas J. Kough,
William V. Whiteway,
hon. Nicholas Stabb,
Robert J. Pinsent, jun.;
Richard B. Holden,
John B. Bulley,
Augustus O. Hayward,
Henry K. Dickinson,
Prescott Emerson,
James M. Winter,
Robert J. Parsons,
John H. Boone,
A. J. W. McNeily.

Harbor Grace--
Lewis W. Emerson,
Henry A. Cleft,
William O. Wood

Israel McNeil.

John Peyton

Bay Roberts--
George W. Hierlihy

Francis Berteau

John Stephenson

James Fitzgerald

George Gushue

W. G. Bradshaw.


St. John's--
Lionel Chancey, keeper

Harbor Grace--
David Rogers, keeper

Francis Geary, keeper

The Court houses of Harbor Grace and Ferryland are in the same buildings as the gaols.


St. John's Penitentiary--
William Magill, keeper.

Harbor Grace--
David Rogers, gaoler,
W. Allan, M.D. surgeon

Charles Granger

Francis Geary

Samuel Collins

John Murphy

Michael Fennell

James Rice

Harbor Breton--
John Garey

Thomas Butler

John Bridle

These buildings called gaols are hardly so in the proper sense of the word, being (with the exception of Harbor Grace) merely lock up houses for the temporary confinement of prisoners sentenced in the Magistrates' Courts, or awaiting trial before a Superior Court, when, if the sentence is for a lengthened period, criminals are removed either to St. John's or Harbor Grace.


St. John's,
Joseph Shea, M.D.;

Harbor Grace,
Joseph Peters;

Bay de Verde,
John Lewis;

Benjamin Sweetland;

Dr. G. Skelton;

John Stephenson;

Bay Bulls,
Martin Williams;

John Lawrence;

District of Twillingate and Fogo,
James Fitzgerald;

Harbor Breton,
William G. Gallop;

South Side of Trinity Bay and from Split Point to Caplin Cove Brook in Conception Bay,
James L. Mews;

John Wilcox;

I. L. McNeil.

All coroners are ex-officio justices of the peace.

Timothy Mitchell, general superintendent of police, St. John's;
James Kenna, sergeant;
Luke Fallon, high constable Harbor Grace;
Peter McBaie, high constable, Carbonear.

Thomas Brien, St. John's;
William Meagher, Harbor Grace;
Peter McBaie, Carbonear;
William Horwood, Brigus;
John Mifflen, Ragged Harbor to Spiller's Cove, inclusive, District of Trinity;
William Harding, Distict of Burin;
Henry Camp, from Pass Island to Cape La Hune, District of Burgeo;
John Lawrence, Bonavista South;
J. T. Moore, Bay Roberts;
John G. Lucas, Fogo;
Marmaduke Clow, District of Ferryland;
Albert Stirling, Dictrict of Fortune Bay;
Frederick White, Greenspond;
J. G. Haddock, Fortune Bay;
James Peyton, Twillingate;
John Coffin, King's Cove;
John Collis, Trinity;
Charles Randall, Heart's Content.


Health Officers--
Henry Shea, M. D., St. John's ;
William Allan, M.D., Harbor Grace;
Francis Moran, M.D., Burin;
William Stirling, M.D., Twillingate;
Hay Findlater, M.D., Fogo;
Robert White, M.D., Trinity.

Health Wardens for Town and District of St. John's--
Dr. Shea, chairman;
Robert R. W. Lilly, secretary;
hon. P.G. Tessier,
hon. James S. Clift,
hon. Robert Kent, and
Stephen Rendell,
F. J. Wyatt,
Robert Grieve,
Robert Thorburn,
Joseph I Little,
John Casey,
J. J. Rogerson,
Thomas R. Smith.

William C. Simms, M.D., medical officer to Board of Trade, for sick seamen, Port of St. John's.


The Church of England in Newfoundland has a history reaching to the time of Queen Elizabeth. During her reign the Church was suffering much from dissension, and to guard as much as possible against any injury to the Church just rising in Newfoundland, the Queen in her commission to Sir Humphrey Gilbert giving him the absolute rule over the island, made special provision that no law should be enacted to her prejudice, Early in the 18th century the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts was established and shortly afterwards the first missionary was sent to St. John's and the first church built (1703). In the year 1839 there were only eight missionaries, a number quite inadequate to the requirements of the people. This was in great part to be traced tot he incomplete organization of the Church which up to that time had no Bishop residing in Newfoundland. In that year, however, the Right Rev. A.G. Spencer was appointed by letters patent Lord Bishop of Newfoundland, succeeded in 1844 by the Right Rev. Edward Feilds, also appointed by royal commission.

Since its erection into a separate see the Church has made considerable progress, but not such as it altogether satisfactory. Besides the scattered nature of the population and the consequent difficult of access to a people widely parted, and the poverty of the country, obstacles common to all denominations, there has been and is still an incompleteness of organization and action which has hindered the Church in her works. She exists solely as a voluntary organization, without any common bond of action, and without any corporal character (except in so far as the bishop is a corporation).

A visitation of the clergy of the diocese was held during the past summer in St. John's, and the necessity which exists to find some means for the election and support of a Bishop in the voidance of the see by the present incumbent, was brought before them. The present bishop received his appointment from the Home Government, and also a certain portion of his support, but neither will this method of appointment be again adopted nor the amount continued. Lay delegates from the several deaneries were invited to meet the clergy for consultation, and it was determined that a diocesan synod should be formed, to meet for the first time in the June of 1870.

This, it is hoped, will give a completeness of organization to the Church, and result in much good.;

The clergy of the diocese are, for the most part, maintained as missionaries by the Society of the Propagation of the Gospels in Foreign Parts, whose grant to Newfoundland amounts to 4,785 pounds sterling. Within the last three or four years the bishop has succeeded in collecting a sum of between 6000 and 7000 pounds for the endowment of the dioscesan missionary college which has been heretofore supported by the parent society, and it has not been determined to raise another fund for the endowment of the bishopric.

The history of the Roman Catholic Church in Newfoundland exhibits considerable progress in the face of great obstructions and disabilities, social and political. It was first established in the island in Ferryland by Sir G. Calvert in 1623, and it was not many years after that Placentia was visited by the bishop of Quebec who left there some French priests to carry on the work of the Church. From the year 1762 to 1784 the Roman Catholic Church was not tolerated in the island, and the ministrations of the Church were only obtained from priests who visited Newfoundland in disguise and at considerable risk. In 1784 Dr. O'Donnell was appointed as bishop of Newfoundland, sixty years before the first bishop of the Church of England. In 1856, at the request of Dr. Mullock, then bishop, the island was divided into two sees, Harbor Grace and St. John's, and during the past year another see has been created, that of Placentia. A college is maintained at St. John's for the education of missionaries, and for the use of members of the Church generally, and convents and schools are supported in all the large settlements (with Roman Catholic population) throughout the colony. Their cathedral at St. John's is a very large and fine building, and with the adjacent college, convents, &c, cost nearly $500,000. The whole organization of the Church, with its bishops, clergy and convents, is supported by voluntary contributions raised in the colony.

The foundation of Methodism in Newfoundland seems to have been coincident with, rather than resulting from, the religious excitement which at the time of Wesley's preaching agitated the Church at home. About 1776 a species of revivals took place under one of the missionaries sent out by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, which, though originally made in the Church without any idea of establishing a new sect, through the force of circumstances came to be the nucleus of the present Wesleyan body. In 1786 the first Wesleyan ministers were sent out, and in 1796 the number of the members of the connexion was given as 200.

In 1800 there were two missionaries and 500 members; since then this body has increased in a greater ratio than any other religious body, and it now has 19 missionaries and a population attached to the connexion of 28,990.

Their missionaries are paid by the parent society to which is sent the contributions of the island.


The island of Newfoundland never having been surveyed, it is impossible to say exactly what may be the extent of land available for settlement. As far as it is known the largest portion of the interior does not offer the same inducement to the agricultural settlers as the more accessible portions near the coast. Great marshy savaunahs abound on which thousands of deer pasture, but it would appear as if these vast meadows were the result of immense accumulations of bog and peat, in some places between seventy and one hundred feet deep, and not generally of a character to induce any attempt at cultivation. It will remain, however, for the future to prove how far they may be capable of use as grazing ground for cattle and sheep.

On the banks of the rivers, streams, and lakes with which the country is in every direction intersected, capital land is found, where, with a climate far more genial than enjoyed in these Eastern shores, it may be expected that thousands will find a home. To these lands, though, as yet, there are no regular means of communication; the rivers and lakes with which the country abounds, perhaps to me extent o one third of its area, of course offer great facilities for the development of a system of intercommunications, but their usefulness depends to a great extent upon the construction of roads and bridges. Those constructed heretofore keep altogether near the coast, running from settlement to settlement, made merely to satisfy the convenience of the inhabitants without any idea as to the opening up for settlement of the vast country lying inside. But besides this great unexplored territory, there are large tracks of land lying seaward, which being readily accessible offer the greatest inducements to settlers, either for agriculture or for lumbering: these are situated mostly at the bottoms of the great bays which the coast line is broken up--
Trinity, Bonavista, Green, and Placentia Bays, on the banks of the Exploits River, and again on the western shores of the island, over the carboniferous formations; these latter portions appear to be the most favorably situated in the island for the purposes of agriculture, and here the surface of the country is often flat or gently undulating over great areas:-The extent of country available here for settlement has been thus blocked off by Mr. Murray, the geological surveyor.

Codroy Valley
75 square miles 48,000 acres
St. George's Bay 222 2,142,680
Humber River 429 256,000
Total 726 446,080

These valleys are, for the most part, well wooded, producing large pines, juniper or tamarack, yellow birch and other valuable timber; in the valley of the Humber this is especially the case, where the timber is of large growth, only awaiting the lumberer's axe to supply a means of wealth to the colony. Lumbering has been carried on here to a small extent and 900 logs were brought down the river in the winter of 1868, one of which was sawn into 2000 fee of board. In Trinity Bay a large tract of very fine land lies almost unoccupied about Smiths Sound, Random Sound, and Island, &c., well wooded, with capital timber quite suited to ship building.

In Clode Sound, Freshwater Bay, along the course of the Terra Nova Brook in Bonavista Bay, a great quantity of he good land lies undisturbed, and even unsurveyed, awaiting the axe and plough of the settler.

In Green Bay, the land about the Exploits River and Halls Bay is in every respect adapted for settlement, and is as yet all but unoccupied. The river is navigable for small steamers or vessels for twelve miles up its course, and with portages as far as the Grand Pond on the western side of the island. The country is well wooded with pine, birch, juniper, &c., of large growth. Water power is available throughout the country in sufficient force to supply any demands that may be made upon it, and can be generally obtained in places easily accessible from the sea. The climate of these portions of the country, as well as of the interior, is far more suited to farming and other outside business than that found on the eastern and south-eastern shores; and the fogs which so often hang close to these coasts are not seen.

The amount of land under cultivation is very small considering the period that has elapsed since the settlement of the island. Since 1830 but little over 3000 grants have been issued, containing about 40,000 acres. The fisheries offer attractions that agriculture cannot put forward; the excitement of chance, the shortness of the busy seasons, the large amounts that are often made, sometimes three or four hundred dollars in a month, are quite sufficient to deter from the more laborious if more sure way of making a livelihood by agriculture. The fisheries, however, are fond to be inadequate to the growing requirements of the population, and as a consequence, the cultivation of the soil has received a considerable impetus during the last years. The provisions of the Land Act are of the most liberal nature, as far as settlers are concerned, and for all land may be obtained by grant at an upset price of 2 shillings per acre in any part of the colony, the applicant paying for its survey and five shillings for his grant. For the benefit of those desiring to settle permanently upon the land, either for lumbering or farming, an Act was passed in 1869, 23 Vict., cap 3 by which any one wishing to cultivate land may, upon application to the governor, obtain a license to occupy fifty acres and anyone wishing to erect a saw mill a license of two hundred acres with a frontage of one-third on a river, and not more than 200 years upon the coast; after the expiration of five years the settler, if he have cultivated two acres or have a saw mill in operation for three years, may obtain a grant in fee for the amount of land held by him under license, paying 5 shillings for the grant, besides the cost of survey. For the further encouragement of agriculture an Act passed in 1866, by which under rules to be adopted by the governor in council any poor person desirous of settling upon crown lands and cultivating the soil is secured in the payment of a bounty of eight dollars for the first acre cleared, and six dollars for each succeeding acre until six acres are cleared, when a free grant is given of the amount reclaimed. "In no other colony is such a boon held out to the poor man--a free grant of land, the best that can be found, and from six to eight dollars for clearing it." The following are the rules and regulations adopted by the governor in council for the carrying out of the act just mentioned, 29 Vict., cap. 5, 1868.

1st. Surveys, under the general superintendence of the Surveyor General, by such persons as the Governor in Council may approve of, and under such instructions as from time to time may be given, shall be made of ungranted and unoccupied waste lands most suitable for agriculture, in the several electoral districts.

2nd. For the purposes of settlement the said land shall be apportioned in lots, not exceeding fifty acres each lot, and having not more than 200 yards frontage on the coast or shore where so abutted.

3rd. Licenses by the Surveyor General shall be issued, according to priority of application, to persons qualified by law to hold grants of land, who may desire the same for permanent settlement; which licenses shall be upon condition of the cultivation of at least two acres within five years: and on performance thereof a grant in fee may issue; and to a poor settler no charge shall be made for cost of survey, license, or grant.

4th. To every poor settler who in the opinion of the Governor in Council shall come within that definition by the Act, shall be paid from the Public Treasury eight dollars for the first acre and six dollars for each of five acres thereafter of land aforesaid in any of the districts, cleared, tilled, and reduced to cultivation by such settler.

5th. That every such settler who may intend to cultivate as aforesaid and apply for the said bonus, shall give notice in writing of such intentions to the Surveyor General, if resident in St. John's, and to the nearest

stipendiary magistrate, or Deputy Crown Surveyor in this district who shall respectively as soon as practicable, satisfy themselves of the bona fide character of the application and enter the same in a book to be kept for that purpose, and such Stipendiary Magistrate of Deputy Crown Surveyor shall forewith report particulars of such application to the Surveyor General to be filed in his office.

6th. That when the land shall be cultivated according to the meaning of the Act, the application for bonus shall give notice thereof to the Surveyor General or Deputy Crown Surveyor of the district who shall record and certify the same under his hand; and on the production of such certificate at the office of the Colonial Secretary the party shall, with the approbation of the Governor in Council, be estimated to receive the said bonus, as the case may be, and for every such certificate the officers granting the same, other than the Surveyor General, shall be titled to a fee of one dollar.

7th. There shall in the first instance be reserved for each electoral district a fair proportion, according to population, of the sum granted for each year for the purposes of the Act; which if not availed of in whole or in part in any district may be applied in any other district for bona fide claims within the year, as may be hereafter be determined on.

Since these regulations were adopted in 1866, between four and five hundred have taken advantage of their provisions, and have cleared between six and seven hundred acres, the bonuses on which amounted to $4 713.97. Heretofore this Act has not been availed of to anything like the extent anticipated, the amount allowed by the Act being $20,000 per annum, but the number of applications for the bonus this past spring has been considerably over that made any other year, and gives the hope that people are being awakened to the necessity of possessing cultivated land as an adjunct to the fisheries, if not as an exclusive means of living.


On the educational system of Newfoundland it is hard to write with commendation; the principle at its root is not such as to ensure thorough vigor, and, being so, perhaps the result is not worse, if not better, than could be expected. The whole cost of education is practically (though perhaps not intentionally) defrayed by the Government out of the general revenues of the Colony, and this without any power being vested in it to compel any return commensurate with the outlay. That which people obtain without much cost to themselves is, as a rule, but little appreciated, and one can but regret to find that, in spite of the zeal and liberality, perhaps one might say profuseness, of the Government in its promotion, education in Newfoundland has but proved the truth of the assertion. The Government having assumed the responsibility of paying and managing, a spirit of weak dependence has been fostered, creating an amount of apathy and indifference which the promoters of education have the greatest difficulty in contending with.

The honor of having been the first to make any attempt towards the Public Instruction of the Colony belongs to Governor Gambier, who arrived in the Colony in 1802. With the co-operation of the clergy he raised a fund by voluntary subscription which was appropriated for the support of two free schools in St. John's, in proportion to the relative number of Protestants and Roman Catholics. Education though, in these early days of Colonial history, seems to have made but the smallest progress, and it was not until the year 1823 that nay comprehensive plan was adopted to bring the Colony under educational influences. About that year a number of English merchants interested in the trade of the Colony formed themselves into an association for the establishment of schools in the Island of Newfoundland, and to the Newfoundland School Society are the inhabitants indebted more than to any other cause for what little advancement education has made. They established schools in all the principal settlements of the Colony number in 1845, between 30 and 40, and having an attendance of 3129 children, nearly half of the number of children then attending school in the whole Island. Since that time, this society has kept schools in operation in all the districts of the Island, aided by a small vote of $2,000 from the Government. Their schools number now, 1869, 18, with an attendance of 2100 scholars, generally the best schools in the Island of an Elementary character, their school in St. John's is used in most cases as the Normal training school for teachers, selected under the provisions of the Education Act by Protestant Boards of Education.

In 1836, the first Act was passed by the Local Legislature for the encouragement of education. In appropriated 2100 pounds for the purposes of the Act, distributed thus:
Newfoundland School Society 300 pounds;
Orphan Asylum school, St. John's, 100 pounds;
Presentation Convent Schools,
St. John's, 100 pounds;
St. Patrick's Free school, Harbor Grace, 100 pounds;
and the rest for the support of the Elementary schools in the different districts of the Colony, to be expended by boards appointed by the Governor. These schools were to be unsectarian in their character, a subsequent Act provisioned that no Board shall, on any pretense, choose or select for the use of such school any book having a tendency to indicate the doctrines or peculiar tenets of any particular church or religious society. This system, godless as it has been termed, did not give satisfaction, and in 1843 an Act was passed increasing the grant to 5100 pounds, appropriating it between Protestant and Roman Catholics, and defining the districts for which Boards were to be appointed. In 1844, the Government, urged by the necessity which existed for a higher class of education than was obtainable in the elementary schools, passed an Act for the formation of an academy in St. John's, granting 3000 pounds for the erection of buildings and purchase of apparatus, and 300 pounds per annum for the salary of head master and 250 pounds per annum, for second master. The academy buildings were not erected, and dissatisfactions existing on account of the lack of religious instruction, and the general ill success of the scheme, in 1850 another Act was passed, forming three separate Boards, in accordance with the denominational divisions of the population, church of England, church of Rome, and general Protestant. This was further amended in 1858 when a separate board was granted to the Wesleyan body, and appropriations of 200 pounds each per annum were made to Harbor Grace and Carbonear for the support of grammar schools. This arrangement (with the exception of Carbonear grammar school, which has been divided into three sections, church of England, Roman catholic, and Wesleyan) still remains in force, though it can hardly be said to give satisfactory results. The following is a comparative statement of expenditure, &c., on account of academies in >1849 and 1869:


62 35
Grant Scholars Rate per Head
Church of England $1846.16 24 $76.96
Church of Rome 2769.24 44.66
Wesleyan 923.08 67 13.71
General Protestant 692.30 19.78
7153.88 243 29.44

And $1267 on account of Normal grant for training masters.

Excluding Normal grant

Grant Scholars Rate per head
$2929.08 19 $154.26


The academy at this time is as undivided.

This table exhibits a considerable increase in the value received for amounts expended for the academy, but still the average cost of each pupil to the colony is much higher than it ought to be; taking the amount which each branch of the academy draws on account of the training of masters in addition to the general grant, the rate per head would not be far short of the $47--and this expended, as a rule, upon children whose parents are quite in a position to pay the whole cost of their education.

In 1851, the grant for elementary education was increased to 7,500 pounds and still further added to in 1853, when it was fixed at 7,880 pounds. This sum, however, restricted as it was by conditions under which it was granted, did not seem sufficient for the wants of the colony in educational matters and in 1858 it was thought it advisable to re-cast the Educational Act of the colony and still further to increase the amounts thereunder voted, which were then fixed at 10,525 pounds. This is the Act now in operation, and under which the whole school system of the colony (if it may be called a system) is regulated. The following is a slight outline of its visitors.

Sec. 2 provides that out of the 10,025 pounds, 9525 pounds shall be divided in ratio of populations between Protestants and Roman Catholics, 5,113 pounds to Protestants, 4,412 pounds to Roman Catholics, to be expended 4,752 by Protestant Boards and 3,667 pounds by Roman catholic Boards for the support of elementary schools in the different districts of the colony.

Sec. 3 provides for the expenditure of 1000 pounds for commercial schools in the principal settlements of the Island: 26 in all, including a school for Presbyterians in St. John's.

Secs. 4 and 5 provide for the appropriation of 695 pounds out of the grant to Roman catholic schools, for the support of convent schools, to be paid to the bishops of St. John's and Harbor Grace.

Sec. 6 and 7 define the boundaries of the respective boards, Protestant and Roman Catholic.

Sec. 8 gives authority to governor to appoint Boards.

Sec. 10 gives power to governor to fill up vacancies in Boards.

Secs. 11 and 12 provide for the internal management of boards, giving them power to make by-laws (subject to approval of governor) and directs annual meeting and transmission of returns to governor.

Sec. 13, the places at which the annual meetings are to take place.

Sec. 14 vests all school property in the Boards making them corporations to sue and be sued in the name of the chairman.

Sec. 15 establishes the scale of fees to be paid. Each child learning alphabet, &c., 2 s. 6d. per year, writing and cyphering 5s, other branches 7s, 6d, navigation 10 s. additional, and provides a mode of recovery by warrant of distraint from justice of the peace.

Sec. 16 enacts that the Protestant Boards for districts in which Newfoundland School Society schools are established shall pay to the society for the support of these schools certain sums amounting to 500 pounds, and

Sec. 17 that schools under the Wesleyan Methodist connexion should be similarly treated to the extent of 250 pounds.

Sec. 18 enacts that out of moneys under the control of the Roman catholic Boards for St. John's and Harbor Grace 550 pounds shall be given for the support of convent schools and the orphan asylum school, St. John's, and St. Patrick's free school, Harbor Grace.

Sec. 19 gives power to Board in one district to assist Board in another.

Sec. 20 provides that the course of instruction should be reading writing arithmetic, English grammar, and where required, geography, history, and navigation, and any industrial employment directed by the Boards.

Sec. 21 votes 200 pounds to be proportionally divided between Protestants and Roman Catholics for repair of schools and for providing books, maps, &c.

Sec. 22 enacts that no grant be made for erection of school houses unless inhabitants contribute an equal amount.

Sec. 23 provides that no religious instruction be given objected to by parents.

Sec. 24 makes provision for the training of teachers, 400 pounds to be expended for Protestant and 380 pounds for Roman catholic teachers, each scholar to receive 25 pounds per annum, whilst training; and no more than two scholars from any one electoral district to be paid for two at the same time.

Sec. 25 provides that teachers shall be educated, in Protestants at either the church of England academy, the Wesleyan academy, or the principal school of the Newfoundland School Society and if Roman Catholics at the Roman catholic academy.

Sec. 26 votes 400 pounds for the inspection of schools, and

sec 27 enacts that two inspectors be appointed one Protestant and one Roman Catholic. And

28 provides that all moneys voted in the Act shall be paid quarterly.

The amounts appropriated under this act and under preceding mentioned acts for the formation of academies, out of the general revenue is larger than that enjoyed in any other country from the same source. The following able will exhibit this in a marked manner:


Country Population> No. of Schools No. of Scholars Percentage of Scholars to Population Education Grant out of General Revenue Rate per head/Population Rate per head/Scholars Salary of Masters
Great Britain 24,600,000 9,340 1,147463 4.66 $3,288,969 $0.18 1/2 $2.85 $820
France 37,382,225 80,915 4,963,457 13.28 1,040,762 0.02 1/2 0.21 165
Prussia 1857 18,491,871 25,643 2,828,692 15.28        
Holland 1857 3,298,137 4,203 456,202 13.33       200
Massachusetts 1860 1,231,066 4,759 230,894 62 649* 0.05 3/4 0.27 706
Ontario 1868 1,726,980 4,890 330, 807 19.15 303,675 0.17 1/2 0.91  
Nova Scotia 384,696 1,458 72,141 10.95 146,585 0.38 2.08 90
Newfoundland 138,670 321 18,441 7.48 64,868 0.47 3.52 120


* State Revenue

This return though exhibiting Newfoundland as pre-eminent in her encouragement of education, also places her pre-eminent for the poor results of her expenditure. And it must seem strange that with such liberal encouragement there should be so much to regret in the educational status of the colony. A solution of the difficulty is found in this, that where everything is done by the state or Government there is extravagance on one side and local apathy on the other; and this is fully borne out as far as Newfoundland is concerned, for it has been noticed that, according as successive Legislatures increased the educational grant, the voluntary contributions of the people decreased in perhaps a greater ratio. To ensure the greatest amount of benefit from the Government vote in aid of education it would seem to be a necessity that in conjunction with it some system of local rating should be adopted which, in developing the forces of local interest and influence, would tend to place education in the prominent position which it ought to occupy. But besides this "apathetic indifference exhibited by the people to everything connected with education" (to quote from the report of the inspector of Roman catholic schools) there are other causes at work, some of them a necessity from the peculiar employment of the people, to retard the progress of education, 1st. The difficulty of intercommunication through the lack of roads.

2nd. The scattered nature of the population which would require five schools where one would be sufficient for the number of children attending.

3rd. The nature of the employment of the people, compelling them in the fishing season to make use of all available labor even that of children of tender years, in the "making" and curing of the produce of the voyage.

4th. Their poverty, which compels them to keep their children from school, in severe weather, from the want of necessary clothing.

5th. The poor salaries which are paid to the teachers, and as a consequence, the meagreness, as a general rule, of their attainments. These causes, and many besides, offer great opposition to all endeavors to improve the educational system of the colony; but it is to be hoped that some of them are capable of removal through judicious legislation, and that others will yield to the ameliorating influences of time, as the condition of the people improves. Consequent upon the taking of the census in 1869 it has been found necessary on account of the greater increase of Protestants to re-distribute and to equalise, in proportion to the denominational division of the population, the grant for education, and during the past session of te Legislature a vote of $6,133 was added to it, so that the re-distribution might be made as little inconvenient as possible. This will make the education grant of the colony for 170 about $72,000, equivalent to about $4 for each pupil education. Urgent need exists for the thorough revision of the educational system of the colony, and it has been under contemplation to introduce at the next session of the Legislature some measures tending to this object. Whatever scheme may be adopted, it is to be hoped that some return commensurate with the very liberal expenditures will be obtained and that education to that which it occupies in the sister provinces.

Return of Schools in Newfoundland supported or aided by Government for the years 1864 and 1869



Desc of Schools

No. of schools

No. of children attending


School Fees



Colonial and Continental Church Society's Schools





This includes grant from Home Society






This includes grant from Home Society











Commercial School










Grammar School





















Schools under the Wesleyan Methodists




















Commercial School










Grammar School































Presbyterian School










Elementary Boarding School










Grammar School










Commercial School




















Total of Protestant Schools





















Convent Schools










Commercial Schools









Roman Catholic Boarding Schools










Other Schools




















Total # of Schools in the Island










This is the amount paid as salaries only

This is the amount paid as salaries only

Comparative Statement of Education in Newfoundland for the years 1845, 1849, 1859, 1869.





Proportion of Population at School


Rate per head

Proportion of General Revenue




































Of the Geology of Newfoundland little was known until within the past four or five years; without proof to the contrary it had generally been assumed as of the most chaotic nature, and repeated experiments in mining seemed to justify the assumption. Silver, lead, copper, iron, plumbago were found scattered about, almost in profusion, but every working made it appear as if these appearances were fragmentary and superficial.

The interior of the island being uninhabited, trackless, and obscured by woods and morasses, and the coast often inaccessible by means of surf and the boldness of the cliffs, it became a difficult matter for science to disprove the chaotic character of Newfoundland. In 1865 Mr. Murray, a gentleman of well tried experience in connection with the Geological Survey of Canada, was requested to undertake a similar survey of this island, and it might almost be said that all that is known of the lithographical structure of Newfoundland, is the result of his labors, carried on in face of the greatest difficulties a surveyor could have to contend against, having first to map the topography of the country before attempting to lay down its geology.

From Mr. Murray's researches we learn that in Newfoundland the lower formations predominate, whilst the secondary are also found largely exhibited; throughout the peninsula of Avalon and for a great distance westward from it, it is supposed that there are no more rocks of a more recent date than the lower members of the Silarian system.

The following have been recognized and their distribution followed out to a certain extent. They are mentioned in ascending order.

1. Laurentian
2. Intermediate (Cambrian)
3. Lower Silurian to the top of the Quebec group.
4. Upper Silurian
5. Devonian
6. Carboniferous
7. Superficial Drift.

The Laurentian series forms as it were, the substratum of the island, spreading itself abroad in great waves or undulations, in some places depressed into deep hollows an in others elevated into mountain ranges. It is exhibited most largely in what is termed the long range, running from Cape Italy to Canada Ray, and it is supposed that the principal ranges of hills and mountains from one side of the island to the other will be of this system now got up by a series of parallel anticlinals. These elevations with their corresponding depressions point about N.N.E. and S. S. W., and give to the island its peculiarity of geographical and topographical structure. On the flanks of these ranges and in the hollows are collected the other geological series of the island resting sometimes conformally and sometimes unconformally upon each other. The rocks of the Laurentian series generally consist of gneiss and mica slate, intersected by dykes of greenstone and Feldspathic veins. The Intermediate has been found to overspread the peninsula of Avalon (Laurentian rocks intruding in several localities) and further north it is found largely exhibited in the peninsula between Trinity and Honavista Bays, and in the islands of the latter bay. The whole formation is intersected by numerous veins of quartz, the larger of which run parallel with the stratification; these quartz veins are often impregnated with ores of copper, frequently of the grey or variegated sulphurets, lead or iron, and sometimes all three together. This formation has been supposed by Mr. Murray to be the equivalent of the Cambrian system of England and the Huronian of Canada.

The Lower Silurian is largely distributed in Newfoundland, but no member higher than the upper part of the Quebec group has been recognized; this, however, is displayed in great force in many parts of the island. In his journey across the island Mr. Cormick noticed almost in its very centre the singularity of the mineralogical apparatus. "All the highest parts of the ridge were of this metallic rock and were extremely sterile." "The other rocks seen were noble serpentine, stratite or soapstone, verdantique and other magnesian rocks." In this description Mr. Murray sees all the conditions of the Lauzon Division of the Quebec group, the metalliferous belt of North America, and considers that here occurs its nearest outcrop going from east to west. On the north-east coast this division is plainly shown, and it is to that part of the island that mining efforts are at present principally directed. The calciferous portion of this system is well marked on the east side of the island, at Canada Bay and Hare Bay, and on the western side along the coast from Port au Port to Cape Norman.

The Upper Silurian has not been, as far as noticed, developed to any great extent; its presence is indicated in White Bay by the presence of Farosites gothandica and other characteristic fossils.

The Devonian
The Carboniferous, which appears to be the highest of the old formations in Newfoundland, occupies, as far as known, an extensive area on the central and south-western parts of the island, consisting, for the most part, of the lower measures of the formation. It occupies three distinct areas, one about St. George's Bay, another designated the Fort a Port Trough, and the third inland by the Humber River and the Grand Pond; these areas are separated from each other by ridges of the older formations upon which the carboniferous series rest unconformably. In the St. George's Bay section, a seam of coal was noticed by Mr. Jukes (who made a preliminary survey of the island in 1839 and 40.) This has been mapped by Mr. Murray exhibiting its outcrop, and subsequently its position verified by Professor Bell of Toronto. Taking the area of the plane of the seam at 38 square miles and its thickness at three feet, there would be 54, 720,000 chaldrons of coal or 1,425,000 chaldrons per square mile. The rocks of this series, as in Cape Breton, consist of conglomerates at the base and in ascending order, of grey and drab micacious sandstones, and red, green, and black shales with bands of limestone, and associated sometimes with protruding masses of gypsum.

Of the Superficial drift Mr. Murray remarks that the facts collected are too meagre and unsatisfactory to allow the hazarding of any suggestions relative thereto. To the north-west of Halls Bay, accumulations were remarked of sixty feet in thickness, consisting of stratified clay, sometimes of a reddish and sometimes of a drab or bluish color gravel and sand containing modern marine shells.

Gold--said to have been found at parts of Conception Bay and at Mings Bight, northern part of the Island. Traces have been discovered in some iron ores taken from the Island of Bonvaista Bay.
Silver--Lawn. This was discovered some years ago. The ore has been described as pure sulph-arseniuriet of silver, usually called ruby silver, yielding on analysis 65.28 per cent, and encrusted with chloride of silver.
Copper--grey ore. Rock Cove, Placentia Bay, Fortune Bay, Hollyrood, Conception Bay, Turks Gut, Conception Bay, North East Arm of Placentia Bay.
Copper Sulphuret--Tilt Cove, Bets Cove, Burton's Pond, St. Julien's Island, Ming's Bight, Sand Cove Island, Hall's Bay, Sop Island, &c.
Copper Pyrites--Hooping Harbor, Goose Cove, &c.
Lead Sulphuret--Galena, Picadilly, Port-a-Port Bay, Deer Lake, Parrody's Head, Bay Despair, La Manche, Long Island near Harbor Buffet, St. Mary's, Town Point, Placentia Bay.
Iron Specular--Grand Vache Bay, Sops Island, Bay Fourchette, Hooping Harbor, Lakeman's Island, &c.
Iron Pyrites--How Harbor, Terra Nova Mine, Bay Despair, St. Mary's, Lakeman's Island, Cataline, Island of Bonavista Bay, &c.
Iron Magnetic--Cairn Mountain, Flay Bay Brook
Iron tufacious or bog--Valley of Terra Nova River, Bonavista Bay.
Plumbago--Islands at the head of Bay Despair, Conne River.
Graphite--Codroy River at Long Range.
Manganese--Topsail Head, between Placentia and St. Mary's Bays. This metal has been noticed only as a wad or bog ore.
Nickel--Tilt Cove.
Chromium--Oxyd, Ming's Bight, Little Bay.
Barytes-Sulphate, La Manche, Topsail, Distress, &c.
Malachite--La Manche.
Kaolin or porcelain clay--Bloody Bay, Bonavista Bay.
Clay Brick--Indian Brook, Entrance of Conne River.
Red Ochre--Flat Bay Brook and adjacent country, Humber River above Beaver Pond.
Shell Marl--Romain's Brook
Soap Stone--Mings Bight.
Ornamental Stones
Jaspers, red red and green, and brown--Humber Arm, Humber River, St. George's Bay, Flat Bay Brook.
Labradorite--Cairn Mountains
Serpentine--How Harbor, Ming's Bight, Little Bay, Terra Nova Mine, Tilt Cove, &c.
Marble--Canada Bay and Harbor, Little Cony Arm, Topsail, Cape St. George, Red Island, Bay of Islands, Humber River, York Harbor, & c.
Marble, white--Bay of Islands, Codroy River, Humber River, Canada Bay.
Marble, black--Humber River, Cooks Cove, jet black on the South side of Humber Arm.
Limestone--Hare Bay, New World Island, Bay of Islands, Cape St. George, Port-a-Port, Humber River, Ryan's Brook, Codroy, Ship Cove, Burin, Topsail, Harbor Main, Cape Dog, St. Mary's Bay, Despair, Come-by-Chance, North Harbor.
Gypsum--Romain's Brook, Codroy Island and River, St. George's Bay. This mineral occurs in vast masses on the coast between Codroy Island and River where it may be quarried to any extent. This found at Romain's Brook is of a very pure white, and probably well adapted for stucco purposes.

Granite--La Poile, Cat's Cove, Holyrood, Cape Reels, Rose Blanche, Black River, Placentia Bay, Salmon Cove, and numerous other localities, the granites of La Poile and Rose Blanche are of the most beautiful quality and boundless in quantity; and that found at Holyrood in Conception Bay of a pretty pink color has been used with the greatest effect in the erection of one of the convents in St. John's.
Sandstones--Kelley's Island, Conception Bay, Codroy Islands, Signal Hill, St. Johns.
Slates--St. Johns, Brigus, Random, Trinity Bay. At Random, slates are now largely quarried, equal in quality to the best imported.
Whetstones--Grand Pond, Great Codroy River, Cape Anguille.
Grindingstones--The sandstones at the foot of Old Harry Mountain, Grand Pond, seem well adapted for this purpose.
Petroleum--Middle Long Point, Port-a-Port and at Bonne Bay.
Coal--Crabbs Brook, Grand Pond. At Crabbs brook the seam is three feet thick.

Robert Oke, general inspector of light houses.

A light house fund, the proceeds of light dues paid in the colony, is maintained separate from the general revenue, for the construction, repair and support of Colonial light houses. And light houses are built in those places most necessary, according as the state of the fund warrants the expenditure.

Two of the below mentioned light houses were build at the cost of the Imperial Government, namely, those at Cape Race and Cape Pine, and the former is maintained by a light due of one-sixteenth of a penny levied by the Imperial statute and collected at all ports of Great Britain and Ireland on vessels arriving fro ports in American, north of New York. The same rate is levied under similar restrictions on all vessels arriving in Newfoundland, but the amount here collected in very trifling. The lights of Galantry Head and South entrance to St. John's are supported and maintained by the French government. A light house is in process of construction at Ferryland, but it will not be exhibited before 1871.

Fort Amherst light at the entrance of St. John's--A light was first established at this station in 1813; in 1850 a new house, lantern, and apparatus were erected. The light burns at an elevation of 114 feet, is produced by a treble argand burner placed in the focus of an annular lens of the fourth order, and in favorable weather can be seen 16 nauticalmiles. When Cape Spear is enveloped in fog, a heavy piece of ordnance is also discharged at this Fort every hour during daylight, to assist vessels in making the harbor. It is situated in lat. 47.33.54 N., and long. 52.40.18 W.
John Sheppard, keeper, Thomas Moore, assistant.

Cape Spear light--This light was first exhibited on the 1st September, 1835;it is produced by seven argand burners and silvered reflectors burning at an elevation of 264 feet--it revolves, shewing a bright light, every minute, and in favorable weather can be seen 26 nautical miles. It is situated in 47.31.11 N lat., and 52.36.59 W. longitude.
James Cantwell, keeper; Denis Cantwell, assistant.

Cape Bonavista light--Situated in lat. 48.41.55 N. long. 53.5.20 W.; is a revolving light, showing alternately every 90 seconds a white and red light. It is produced by 16 argand burners and reflectors, burns at an elevation above the sea of 150 feet, and in favorable weather can be seen 18 nautical miles. By keeping this light open with Cape Largent, it will carry you clear of the Flower Rocks; first exhibited 11th September 1843.
Nicholas White, keeper; Matthew White, assistant.

Cape Pine light--This tower is of iron, built by the Imperial Government in 1849-50, and first put in requisition on the 1st January 1851. It is a fixed white light, has 12 argand burners and reflectors--elevated above the level of he sea 314 feet--situated in lat. 46.37.4N, and in long 53.31.45 W In a favorable state of the atmosphere it can be seen 26 nautical miles.

George Hewitt, keeper; Thomas Doran, assistant.

Harbor Grace Beach beacon and light--First exhibited 11th September 1850; stands on the Point of Beach at the entrance of Harbor Grace. It is a double light, as a distinction from Harbor Grace Island light, one being placed above the other preserving that appearance for six miles, exceeding this distance up to ten miles the two lights appear blended into one.

In sailing into Harbor Grace with a fair or leading wind, bring the Beach beacon to bear W or W by S, and keeping the light or building a little on the starboard bow it will bring you clear of the bar, on which at low water there is not more than 8 feet of water. It is situated in lat 47.41.28 N, and in long 52.12.33 W; elevation above the sea level 40 feet; in clear weather it may be seen at a distance of 11 nautical miles.

George Brown, keeper.

Green Island light at the entrance of Catalina Harbor, Trinity Bay.--Situated in lat. 48.30.16 N., long. 53.2.40 W. This is a fixed white light, burns at an elevation of 92 feet above high water, and in favorable weather will be seen from E.N.E., seaward, to S. W., 15 nautical miles. Vessels bound Northward by keeping this light open with the North Head of Catalina until Bonavista light opens with Cape Le Jean, will give the Flower Rocks an ample berth--or when coming from the Northward and bound for Catalina, by giving the N. Head a moderate berth, you will clear the Brandies Rocks by steering for Green Island light. It was first exhibited in 1857.

Peter Woods, keeper; Henry Roper, assistant.

Cape Race light--Exhibits a revolving white light from sunset to sunrise. The light will be visible to seaward from N.E. by E. round by the S. E. and S. to W. The light is elevated 180 feet above the mean water level of the sea, and may be seen in clear weather 19 nautical miles from a ship's deck. The tower is striped red and white vertically. It stands close to the old beacon, which has been cut down. The light house is in lat. 46.39.30 N., long 53.4.30 W., and was first exhibited in 1856.

Michael J. Hally, keeper; George Simms, assistant; James Simms, 2nd assistant during winter months.

Dodding head, Great Burin Island light--This light was put in requisition on the 3rd August 1858 and is exhibited every night from sunset to sunrise. It is a revolving cato-dioptric of the second order, producing a brilliant white light every minute with intermediate flashes, at intervals of twenty seconds, burning at an elevation of 430 feet above the level of the sea, and in favorable weather can be seen 29 miles--situated in 47.0.26 north latitude, 55.8.43 west longitude.
Austin Sheppard, acting keeper; John Churchwell, assistant.

Offer Wadham Island light--Was first exhibited on the 4th October 1858 and is lighted every night from sunset to sunrise--The light is a steady, fixed lens-light, burning on a circular Brick Tower 100 feet above the level of the sea, and can be seen in a favorable state of the atmosphere 15 nautical miles. Situated in latitude 49.36.0 north--longitude 53.45.6 west.
Charles Prowse, keeper; Patrick Hollahan, assistant.

Baccalieu Island light--This light is exhibited every night from the going away of daylight in the evening to the return of daylight in the morning. The light house is situated on the northern end of the Island. Latitude 48.9.51 north, longitude 52.47.50 west--the tower is of brick, the keeper's dwelling a square building detached from the tower, painted white with the roof red. The light is a cato-dioptric first class Holpohotal revolving white light, shewing a flash every twenty seconds. It is elevated 443 feet above high water, and can be seen in clear weather 30 nautical miles, and a lesser distance according to the state of the atmosphere.--When the southern end of the Island bears N. N. E., the light will not be visible when nearer the Island than 8 miles. It was first exhibited in 1858.
James Ryan, keeper; John Ryan, assistant.

Cape St. Mary's light--Was put in requisition on the 20th September, 1860; it is a revolving cato-dioptric light of the first order producing alternatelly every minute a brilliant red and white light burning at an elevation of 300 feet above the level of the sea, and will be seen in a favorable state of the atmosphere 26 nautical miles from a vessel's deck; situated in 46.49.30 N. lat., 54.11.34 West long. The tower is of brick, and on each side of which stands the dwellings of the keeper and assistant, the sides of which are painted white, roofs red.
John Rieley, keeper; William J. Collins, assistant.

St. John's--Two red lights are exhibited every night from sunset until sunrise, intended as leading marks for vessels entering the Narrows. The lower light on the roof of the Custom house--the other 400 yards in the rear, on a white post, within a few yards of the N. E. angle of the Congregational church, and 180 feet above the level of the sea. These lights will be readily distinguished from any other lights in the town; and keeping them in a line bearing N. W. 3/4 W., will lead in the largest vessel clear of all danger. To serve as leading marks also during the day, the pediment of the Custom house has been painted white; this is to be kept in line with the upper lantern, also painted white. Exhibited 1st September, 1863.

Brunet Island light, Mercer's Head, Fortune Bay.--First exhibited 27th June, 1865. It is a powerful, flashing white light, and attains its greatest brilliancy every ten seconds. It burns at an elevation of 408 feet above the level of the sea, and in clear weather may be seen at a distance of 35 miles, and be visible in every direction from North round East and South, to W. N. W. Mercer's Head is a bold headland, and situated in long. 55.59.30W., and lat. 47.16 N.
Martin Sparrow, keeper; James Gaulton, assistant.

Harbor Grace Island light. The fixed light for many years past exhibited at Harbor Grace Island, in Conception Bay, was discontinued on the 1st December, 1869. The light at that station is now revolving, showing in every direction two white flashes, followed by one red flash. The interval between each flash in attaining its greatest brilliancy will be 30 seconds. This light, in a favorable state of the atmosphere, will be seen 25 nautical miles. It is situated in lat. 47.42.45 N., and long. 53.8.15.
Austin Oke, keeper; Charles Snow, assistant.

Ferryland light recently constructed.
Michael Kearney, keeper; -- Costello, assistant.

Galantry Head, Island of St. Peter's--The fixed light on Galantry Head, Island of St. Peter's, since the 10th August 1862, has been replaced by a flash light, with intervals of twenty seconds, and by one red flash after two white flashes; situated in lat. 46.45.30 N.; long. 58.27.0 W.; elevation above high water 64 metres. Distance at which the light is visible 18 miles. The light is hidden at the northward by the high land of St. Peter's.

Light at the South entrance, St. Peter's--Since 1st October 1862, the entrance of the harbor of St. Peter's, called South Channel, has been marked by two small fixed lights, one of which is a white light illuminating three-fourths of the horizon, and placed on the battery--and the other a red light, on the plain at the north of the town. The white light has an elevation of 11 metres, and is visible 6 miles. The red light is elevated 19 meters, visible 3 miles distance. The line connecting these two lights indicates the Middle Channel.

The position of the red light has also been so determined that as soon as it is seen on the left of Cape Eagle, vessels coming from Columbier in beating into the N. E. entrance will have nothing to fear from the shoals of Cape Rouge.

Light Dues--One shilling per ton on all vessels entering any port or harbor of the Colony, except coasting, sealing, or fishing vessels; but not to be levied more than once in any one year. Sealing and coasting vessels--Six pence per ton on registered vessels of 40 tons and upwards, fifteen shillings per annum on all vessels less than 40 tons.

The 19th Vict., cap. 5, sec. 5, enacts-- "that no greater sum than 25 pounds sterling shall be in any year levied for light dues on any steamer or vessel entering any port of this colony; and no steamer plying between Europe and any port of North America, and entering any port of this colony as a port of call, shall be liable to pay any light dues or other port charges except pilotage."


Within the last few years, mining explorations have been carried on to a considerable extent, and hopes have been raised by the marked success which has attended one of the mining enterprises that Newfoundland may yet become the Cornwall of Britain in America, as pre-eminent for her mines and minerals as she has been and is for her fisheries. Under the Act. 23 Vict., cap. 3., to make provisions for the disposal and sale of ungranted and unoccupied Crown Lands within the Island of Newfoundland, and to make rovision for granting Mining Licenses, Leases, and Grants, &c., it was enacted that the "Governor may issue licenses of search for three square miles," giving the exclusive right to the land licenses. Such as license holds good for two years, at the end of which period a grant may be issues on application, of one square mile, provided that if within two years from the issue of the grant mining operations shall not have commenced, the grant shall revert to the Crown. Under this Act the following regulations have been adopted by the Governor in Council:--

I. An application for a License of search 9which can continue in force for two years only, and can cover only three square miles) shall be made in the form of a petition and filed and registered in the Surveyor Generals' office; and such petition shall describe generally, but with sufficient certainty, the situation, extent, and boundaries of the land over which the search is to extend; and with such petition there shall be deposited with the Surveyor General, for the use of the colony, the sum of five pounds sterling.

II. An application for a grant or lease of mineral land (which cannot exceed one square mile) shall be made in the like form and be filed in the same office, and shall contain an accurate survey, made by a Government surveyor at the expense of the petitioner, of the land required, with a description of its position and boundaries; and shall disclose the names of any present occupants, if any; whether any part of the land has been, or at such time be, under cultivation or improvement of any kind, and if so by whom made, and to what extent, and whether any other person has any right, interest, or claim in and over the said land, or is possessed of any part thereof. With such petition a sum of ten pounds sterling shall be deposited with the Surveyor General for the use of the colony, and the same shall be accompanied by a certificate from the Surveyor verifying such particularsas relate to the occupation, possession and state of said land, and the absence of claims upon it by other parties.

III. Every petition shall be deemed to be fixed, so as to give the Applicant a prior claim to what he seeks only from the time of the payment of the deposit money.

IV. Every application for a grant or lease of mineral land shall be advertised by the applicant in the Royal Gazette for one month previously to such grant or lease being issued.

V. Every grant or lease shall contain a reservation of a royalty of five per cent upon all gold and silver, and (after five years) of two and one half per cent, on the gross produce of all other mines or mineral worked on the land, or obtained therefrom, and a reservation to the public, if considered advisable by the Governor and Council of the beach or sea shore, to the extent of 100 feet from high water mark, for the purposes of the fishery, and it shall be subject to a condition that the lease or grant shall be forfeited if the mines and minerals therein mentioned be not actually and effectually worked within two years from the date of the grant, or if the working thereof be intermitted or the period of two years at any time, or if the royalty be not paid and shall contain provisions for affording free access at all reasonable times to the Surveyor General and his agents, to inspect and see the state of the works, and the quantity of minerals raised or worked; for the keeping of true books of account by the grantee or lessee of all such minerals, which books shall always be open to the inspection of the Surveyor General or his agents, and for the determination of the moment of the royalty from time to time payable in manner hereafter mentioned.

VI. The royalty reserved by any grant or lease shall be delivered to the Surveyor General or his agent upon the land quarterly, or may be compounded for at such rate as may from time to time be agreed upon between that office and the grantee or lessee.VII. A map of Newfoundland, showing all mineral grants, leases and licenses of search, with the dates thereof shall be kept in the Surveyor General's office, open to inspection on payment of one shilling.

Under these regulations, licenses have been issued and grants taken up; all of these are upon the coastline and for the greater part on the shore and islands lying between Cape John and Cape Freels. It is in this portion of the island that the Lauzon division of the Quebec group of rocks (which has been termed the Metalliferous belt of America) has been most fully traced out by the Government geological surveyor; and it is here that the principal mining operations have been carried on, viz., at Tilts Cove and Burton's Pond. The ore worked is, in both instances, copper, found in conjunction with fine serpentines, though at Tilt Cove, nickel has also been worked with great profit, from a lode or vein, and sold for 80 pounds per ton.

Applications on the south coast, and more especially in Placentia Bay, have been principally for lead, and it is in this section that the La Manche lead mine is being now worked. Free grants or licenses have been issued for the western shore of the island, owing to the treaty rights which the French possess on that portion of the country. The limits of these rights have been repeatedly debated and discussed, but without much conclusion being come to upon the question; for while it is evident that the French cannot possibly possess any territorial jurisdiction in Newfoundland, it is equally plain that by treaty they need suffer no interference or interruption with their rights of codfishing, which of course involves the use of the shore. With this difficulty unsolved, the Home Government, until lately, positively forbade any licenses being issued for that portion of the island (termed the French shore) but a sort of compromised has been affected whereby at present both licenses and grants may be obtained for land lying one mile from the high water mark. This is hardly satisfactory, but until the meaning of the treaties has been mutually agreed upon, anything more can hardly be expected. This shore seems rich in many articles of great economic important, and gypsum, marble, limestone, coal, iron and petroleum await the enterprise of the capitalist. In Trinity Bay, one grant of land has been made for the purposes of a slate quarry, and very considerable progress has been made in opening it up; the slate is of excellent quality, obtainable in the largest sizes, and is described by the Welsh quarrymen who are engaged in its working as equal to any obtained from the celebrated quarries in Wales.


On the application of any Alien resident in Newfoundland the governor may issue letters patent under the great seal of the island, naturalising such aliens, who thereupon or as soon after as he shall have taken the oath of allegiance before a judge of the Supreme Court, (which must be done within ten days from the issuing of letters patent) shall become entitled to all the rights, privileges, and immunities, and subject to all the liabilities of a natural born subject of Her Majesty (under Act 19, Victoria, cap 20).


The Act. 26, Victoria, cap 18, entitled "An Act for the Regulation of the Currency", provides that the denomination of money in the currency of the colony shall be dollars and cents, and that all public accounts shall be paid, and monies received, in such currency. The system has been based upon the value of the sovereign, which is fixed at $4.80, all parts of the sovereign being a legal tender after the like rate, and according to the proportion they respectively bear to the sovereign; thus the shilling English passes for 24 cents, the florin for 48 cents, the half-crown for 60 cents, while the English half-penny is equivalent to one cent. A colonial coinage has been minted under the Act, consisting of cents in bronze, 5 cent, 10 cent, 20 cent pieces in silver, and 2 dollar pieces in gold. The standard of fineness is the same as that used for British coins and their intrinsic value bears the same proportion to the current value as British coins respectively bear to their current value. On this Act, the Master of the Mint has remarked that the creation of a new distinction between the currency of two neighboring British colonies may be regretted, but Newfoundland cannot well be objected to for adopting a decimal system of the dollar so much in harmony with the Imperial coinage as to admit of being worked by British coins, and which of all the decimal systems of coinage appears to be that which would be introduced with least difficulty into the Mother country itself


Current Value of Coins in Newfoundland
Spanish Doubloon (gold) $15.05
" Half " 7.75
Mexican Doubloon " 15.35
" Half " 7.60
All Quarter of Doubloons (gold) 3.80
All Eighths 1.90
All Sixteenths .95
20 Franc pieces (French) 3.60
10 " " 1.80
5 " " .90
Spanish Sovereign (120 Reis) 4.80
" " (40 ") 1.80
20 Dollar Piece (American) 19.70
10 " " " 9.83
5 " " " 4.97
2-1/2 " " " 2.46
1 " " " .98
3 " " " 2.95
1 Dollar piece (American) silver .93
1 Franc piece " .48
5 " " " .91
1 Dollar Spanish or Mexican (silver) 1.00
1 Florin .48
1 English Shilling .24
English Half Crown .60

The entries have been transcribed as
they appear in the 1871 Lovell's directory.
Over the years, many of the names have become
colloquialized or spelled differently.

Traqnscribed by Mike Tierney

Page Last Modified: Tuesday March 26, 2013 (Don Tate)
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