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SLADE & CO.

Fogo Twillingate and Labrador

Page 1

Biographical History

John Slade was born at Poole, England in 1719. He received some schooling and was apprenticed as a mariner. By the 1740's he was captain and in 1748 made a voyage to Newfoundland. In 1753 he aquired his first ship and struck out into the Newfoundland trade on his own account. By the 1760's he owned and operated three to four ships and deployed cod fishing crews in Twillingate, Fogo and Tilting Harbour. He also diversified his interests and collected furs, salmon and seals. By the 1760's he was also active in Labrador. (1)

By 1775 Slade was firmly established at Twillingate and supploed food clothing and even servants to planters in exchange for cod, oil, and other staples. In 1782 Slade opened a second major establishment at Fogo. Although John slade had one son, he died in 1773. As a resultJohn Slade focused on his nephews, some of whom had considerable experience with him in Newfoundland as mariners and ships' captains. Following his death in 1793, John slade's business was carried on by his nephews. According to Handcock, John Slade now called JohnSlade Jr. was based in Poole, David assisted as company factor in Twillingate, Thomas slade commanded ships and Robert Slade took major responsibility for Labrador. (2)

Although changes had been made in the management of the business, ledgers indicate that the firm still operated under the name of John Slade and Company in the early 1800's. It appearsthat a major restructuring took place around 1815 or 1816. Thomas Slade and his nephew William Cox seem to have gone into business on their own account. Records show that John Slade transferred fishing rooms at Fogo and Twillingate to Robert Slade Jr. and John Slade Jr. in 1815. In 1816 Robert and John slade also purchased for £ 1200 fishing rooms at Fogo from George Garland. (3) This appears to have been the end of the original John slae and Company and after 1816 these two firms carry on business in the area.

Custodial History

The company formed by thomas Slade and William Cox have the early ledgers for John Slade and Co. in their possession. Proof of this connection is confirmed in the John slade & Co. ledger for 1785. Since the ledger was not filled it was used by Slade and Cox as a letter book and contains correspondence for 1818-1824. Further evidence suggesting this is the case that appears

SLADE & CO.

Fogo Twillingate and Labrador

Page 2

in a 1816 letter book. On May 18, 1816 the company agent noted that they were "on the eve of beginning taking the division." A letter of June 17, 1816 to Thomas Slade in Poole from his agent at Fogo noted:

"Your nephews Robert and John slade are both at Twillingate. I think they don't intend doing any business here this summer. But if we fall short of articles in the Fall they may have a chance of supplying some of our dealers."

This indicates that Robert and John slade may not have had the facilities to carry on a large trade at Fogo and this may have been a contributing reason for their purchases for £ 1200 of the property of George Garland in December of 1816. The firm of Thomas Slade and William Cox later became William Cox and Company and carried on business at Twillingate, Fogo and Grenspond. The later custodial history of John Slade & Co. material is unclear, however the records eventually came into the passession of Earle Sons & Co. Ltd. Robert and John slade carried on business at Fogo and Twillingate. Like other firms of the period they hired agents to help run the business. One of these agents was John W. Owen. By the 1860's this business was owned by David and Thomas Slade. In 1867 the business was dissolved, however any claims or debts were requested to be forwarded to John W. Owen at Twillingate (4) In 1870 John W, Owen purchased the property from David and Thomas slade andhe took Henry J. Earle into partnership with him. It appears that Owen operated the former Sladepremises at Twillingate while Earle was in charge of the Fogo operation. In 1893 the partnershipbewteen owen & earle was dissolved. Following John Owen's Death in 1902 Henry J. Earle bought the north and south side premises at Twillingate from Louisa Owen. By 1906 the north side premises at Twillingate had been sold to John W. Hodge. In 1915 the south side premises were sold to William Ashbourne. Earle continued to operate his business at Fogo and other harbours. Earle Sons & Co. Ltd. was incorporated in 1917 and continued to operrate at Fogo (There was also an office in St. John's.) until 1967 when the fishing premises were closed down. (5)

SLADE & CO.

Fogo Twillingate and Labrador

Page 3

The firm of Thomas Slade and William Cox later became William Cox and Company, it was based in Poole, England. This firm also had agents and around 1867 two of its agents William Waterman and R. D. Hodge purchased the business and the new firm was called Waterman and Company. The 1885-1886 Directory shows Waterman and Company carrying on business at both Twillingate and Fogo. Their agents were Dormaond Hodge and Thomas Hodge. By the 1890's John W. Hodgee had established a business in Notre Dame Bay by acquiring premises from the firm of Edwin Duder which ahd failed following the Banks crash in 1894 (6). In 1897 John W. Owen leased the premises on the north side of Twillingate to John W. Hodge for one year at $400 with an option to renew or buy for $6000 (7) Following Owen's death in 1902 Henry J. Earle bought this property and then sold it to John W. Hodge in 1903 (final payment made in 1906) (8) In 1918 the Fogo Branch of the Hodge Business was sold to the Newfoundland and labrador Export Company. This business closed in the 1950's. (9) Earle Sons & Co. Ltd. however made an offer to purchase the Fogo assets of the Newfoundland and Labrador Export Comapny in january, 1958. Internal Provincial Archives files indicate that contact was made with Earle & Sons Co. Ltd. early in 1962 and a visit to Fogo was made during the summer. Records indicate that a large quantity of material from Earle & Sons Co. Ltd. was accessioned in August and October of 1962. Organization The Slade Company records were only a part of a large collection of material that came form Earle Son's & Co. Ltd. in 1962. In the preliminary inventory of the Provincial Archives compiled in 1970 and 1972 the Earle material was treated as one collection. During the 1970's the material was divided and a collection was created for the SlTypeitems.

SLADE & CO.

Fogo Twillingate and Labrador

Page 4

Scope and content Boxes 1 to 5 coincide with the later time period of the original business operated by John Slade. Boxes 6 to 13 cover the period 1793 to 1816 when the nephews of John Slade operated the business. Boxes 14 to 22 appear to be records of Thomas Slade and William Cox's business venture. Boxes 23 to 34 contain a more varied type of records and include Slade related items for Labrador and Trinity. Box 29 appears to relate to some other firm rather than Slade's. Most of the material consists of business ledgers and day books that document the various firms transactions with the Fogo and Twillingate regions resident population. Purchases of food, clothing, fishing supplies, etc. are recorded together with the dried codfish, seal oil and pelts and other items turned over to the firm as payment. There is also some coorespondence and miscellaneous items relating to the operation of this type of business.

A file list has been prepared for the collection.

SLADE & CO.

Fogo Twillingate and Labrador

Page 5 (References)

(1) - Dictionary of Canadian Biography, Vol. 4, p. 711-12
(2) - Ibid p. 713
(3) - Earle Sons & Co., MG 464
(4) - Earle Sons & Co., MG 464
(5) - Ibid
(6) - Guide to Hodge Business Records (Maritime History Archive)
(7) - Earle Sons & Co., MG 464
(8) - Ibid
(9) - Ibid

SLADE & CO.

Fogo Twillingate and Labrador

Page 6

  1. BOX 1
    1. Ledger, 1782-1784 (indexed) (Damaged - some restrictions may apply) Individual accounts; price of clothing, provisions, fishing supplies etc.
    2. List of the earliest planters and fishermen who traded with John Slade and Company, 1783-1792, compiled by George Horvath.
  2. BOX 2
    1. Ledger, 1784-1785 (back of ledger contains letter book copies 1818-1824)
    2. Ledger, 1785-1786
  3. BOX 3
    1. Ledger, 1786-1787
    2. Ledger, 1787-1788 (Indexed)
  4. BOX 4
    1. Ledger, 1788-1789
    2. Ledger, 1790-1791
    3. Ledger, 1791-1792
  5. BOX 5
    1. Ledger, 1792-1793
    2. Ledger, 1793-1794
  6. BOX 6
    1. Ledger, 1794-1795 (Indexed)
    2. Ledger, 1795-1796 (Indexed)
    3. Ledger, 1796-1797
  7. BOX 7
    1. Ledger, 1797-1798 (Indexed)
    2. Ledger, 1798-1799 (Indexed)
    3. Ledger, 1799-1800
  8. BOX 8
    1. Ledger, 1801-1802(Indexed)
    2. Ledger, 1802-1803
  9. BOX 9
    1. Ledger, No 2, 1803-1804
    2. Ledger, 1804 - 1805
    3. Ledger, No 2, 1804 - 1805
  10. BOX 10
    1. Ledger, No 2, 1805-1806
    2. Ledger, No 3, 1805-1806
    3. Ledger, 1806-1807 (damaged - some restrictions may apply)
  11. BOX 11
    1. Ledger, No 3, 1807-1808
  12. BOX 12
    1. Ledger, 1811-1812
    2. Ledger, No 2, 1812-1813
    3. Ledger No 3, 1812-1813
  13. BOX 13
    1. Ledger, 1813-1814
    2. Ledger No 3, 1814-1815
    3. Ledger, 1815-1816 (damaged - some restrictions may apply)
  14. BOX 14
    1. Ledger (indexed), 1816-1817
    2. Ledger (indexed), 1817-1818
    3. Ledger (indexed), 1818-1819
  15. BOX 15
    1. Ledger, 1819-1820
    2. Ledger, 1820-1821
  16. BOX 16
    1. Ledger, 1822-1823
  17. BOX 17
    1. Legder, 1825-1826
    2. Ledger, 1826- 1827

    SLADE & CO.

    Fogo Twillingate and Labrador

    Page 7

  18. BOX 18
    1. Ledger, 1827-1828
    2. Ledger, (indexed) 1828-1829
  19. BOX 19
    1. Ledger, (indexed) 1830-1831
    2. Ledger, 1831-1832
  20. BOX 20
    1. Ledger, 1832-1833
  21. BOX 21
    1. Ledger, 1834-1835
    2. Ledger, 1836-1837
  22. BOX 22
    1. Ledger, (indexed) 1837-1838
  23. BOX 23
    1. Battle Harbor Labrador Ledgers - 1793, 1794, 1795, 1796, 1798, 1802-1803, 1803
    2. 1805, 1806, 1808, 1809, 1810, 1811
  24. BOX 24
    1. Day Books - 1807, 1811, 1812, 1813, 1815
  25. BOX 25
    1. Day Books - 1817, 1818, 1819, 1823
  26. BOX 26
    1. Day Books - 1825, 1826, 1828 (damaged - some restrictions may apply), 1829, 1830
  27. BOX 27
    1. Day Books, 1830-1831
  28. BOX 28
    1. Day Books, 1864, 1868
    2. SLADE & CO.

      Fogo Twillingate and Labrador

      Page 8

  29. BOX 29
    1. Day Book, May - September, 1876
    2. Day Book, September - December, 1876
    3. Day Book, January - May, 1877
    4. Day Book, September 1877 - May 1878
    5. Day Book, June - November, 1878
    6. Day Book, May - October, 1879
    7. Day Book, (Tilton), 1880
  30. BOX 30
    1. File 1 (A) - 1809-1810, Letter Book from Trinity to Poole, England
    2. File 1 (B) - Catalina Letter Book, 1818-182
    3. File 1 (C) - Letter Book, 1818
    4. File 2 - Letter Book, 1811-1814, Trinity (damaged - some restrictions may apply)
    5. File 3 - Letter Book, Trinity, 1821-1822 (damaged - some restrictions may apply)
    6. File 4 - Letter Book, Trinity, 1823-1824 (damaged - some restrictions may apply)
    7. File 5 - Misc. Papers re: Business in Catalina, 1825 (photocopies)
    8. * Some books contain lists of servants and wages
  31. BOX 31
    1. File 1 - letter to John Slade & Company, 1798-1822
    2. File 2 - Misc. letter, 1793-1814
    3. File 3 - Indentures and misc. documents, 1807-1909
  32. BOX 32
    1. File 1 - Misc. items, Trinity
    2. File 2 - Insurance of Vessels, 1859
    3. File 3 - List of dealers, conditions, general credit information (Catalina, Ragged Harbor and Bird Island Cove)
    4. File 4 - Planters, servants agreements and ice hunters
  33. BOX 33
    1. Labrador Account, 1798-1816 (mainly hardware)
    2. Promissory notes, 1809-1817, Fogo
    3. SLADE & CO.

      Fogo Twillingate and Labrador

      Page 9

  34. BOX 34
    1. File 1 - Misc, goods shipped, list of people in Newfoundland and Labrador 1785, 1786; inventory at Fogo, 1785, 1786; invoice of goods, Battle Harbor, 1786.
    2. File 2 - invoices; goods shipped to Newfoundland, 1795, 1823, 1826
    3. File 3 - Berry Book, 1813, 1817 - berries purchased from individuals and goods taken in return
    4. File 4 - receipt book, 1806-1808
    5. File 5 - Shipping papers, 1793 - servants signing on for voyages and staying over the winter
    6. File 6 - Goods at Fogo for sale, 1845 and 1866 - list of debts due and credit rating of individuals by settlements ca. 1865
    7. File 7 - Portuguese - shipping documents
    8. File 8 - Misc. files - index compiled by N.C. Crewe - shipping papers; death certificate; John Slade; debit notes, oil shipped; sealing agreement, 1846

REVISED: 22 July 2000 (Don Tate)

 

 
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