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 Post subject: Labrador Innu (Mont-Nask) & Inuit DNA Studies
 Post Posted: Mon Aug 24, 2015 3:25 pm 
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Does any researcher out there know if any research laboratory or testing compnay has been conducting any ongoing or planning to conduct future DNA (atDNA, mtDNA, YDNA) of Labrador Innuat (Montagnais-Naskapi) and Inuit kin groups? My only question with regard to the paucity or rather absence of any published research findings on any DNA research studies for the groups in question, why have the details of such testing not been referenced in on-line published journal article search finding aids, guides or directories? As per previous published newspaper articles, The Beothuk Institute has publicly expressed its interests or intention of comparing the DNA findings of Beothuk skeletal remains or mummies to the results of DNA studies from Labrador Innuat and Inuit (and of course Newfoundland Mi'kmaq). Outside of some NL Mc DNA test results, namely through FTDNA group and mtDNA projects, why have the results of these preliminary findings for the Labrador groups not been released to the public domain? Just a question that to date has not been answered by the respective authorities or experts in the field overseeing these interdisciplinary research projects!


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 Post subject: Re: Labrador Innu (Mont-Nask) & Inuit DNA Studies
 Post Posted: Fri Dec 23, 2016 8:47 pm 
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Here are a couple of conference paper references with abstracts relating to Maritime Archaic Indian, Montagnais-Naskapi (Innu) and Newfoundland Red Indian (Beothuk) (now extinct) aDNA full genome sequencing
studies, to keep any interested readers apprised of current developments:

1.) CANADIAN ASSOCIATION FOR PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY/L’ASSOCIATION CANADIENNE D’ANTHROPOLOGIE PHYSIQUE

Program and Abstracts Programme et résumés 42nd Annual Meeting hosted by Department of Anthropology, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton 42éme Congrés annuel organisé par Département d'anthropologie, Université du Nouveau-B

A population on the run: Investigating the Beothuk population collapse using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of human bone collagen Harris A.1 , Marshall I.2 , Jerkic S.1 , Poinar H.3 , Grimes V.1,4 18 1Dept. of Archaeology, Memorial University of Newfoundland; 2 Institue of Social and Economic Research, Memorial University of Newfoundland; 3Dept. of Anthropology, McMaster University; 4Dept. of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. Prior to the arrival of European fishermen in Newfoundland, the Beothuk and their ancestors, the Little Passage culture, were generalized hunter gatherers whose subsistence economy featured maritime and inland adaptations. Faunal remains and site distribution provide evidence for seasonal movement between the inner and outer bays and river systems of the island. The preponderance of coastal sites compared to inland sites point to the importance of marine mammals and birds to the Beothuk and Little Passage subsistence economies. Personal accounts by European contemporaries report that the increasing European presence in coastal areas of Newfoundland restricted Beothuk access to the marine resources crucial to their subsistence. The disruption of the traditional Beothuk seasonal round has been identified by Beothuk scholars as a significant factor in the collapse of their population, however, the extent of the disruption is not fully understood. In this paper, we report on the initial results from a diachronic study that seeks to assess the degree to which the subsistence economy and settlement patterns of the Beothuk and their ancestors may have altered over the past 1300 years. We apply stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis to the skeletal remains of 21 individuals representing the Beothuk, Little Passage and earlier Cowhead cultural complexes. While preliminary, the data suggest a reduction in high trophic level marine foods in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, coincident with a change in the Beothuk seasonal round.

(http://www.unb.ca/conferences/capa/prog ... tracts.pdf)

2.) Genetic insights of the Maritime Archaic and Beothuk cultures of Newfoundland

Abstract:

The culture and wisdom of aboriginal populations are under threat in modern society and we know even less about aboriginal populations of the past. With a combined approach of genetic and isotopic data, we are attempting to answer questions of the settlement of the east coast of North America and the relationship between two populations, the Maritime Archaic and Beothuk, who lived in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador from approximately 7500 – 150 YBP. The Maritime Archaic people were resident in the area from around 7550 - 3200 YBP while the Beothuk, who were the European contact population, appear in the archaeological record only around 2000 YBP and are believed to have gone culturally extinct with the death of Shanawdithit in AD 1829. We have recovered the complete mitochondrial genomes of 75 individuals belonging to these cultures and the data indicate a surprising degree of diversity within these populations but also suggest that there was no maternal continuity between the groups, indeed they may not have even shared a common source population. This project has broad implications for our knowledge of the peopling of the Americas, especially given the dearth of available data from the northeast, and on a local level allows us to reconstruct the ancestry and history of the people who came before. While genetic data cannot recreate cultural information, it can inform us as to the history of these populations and allow us to examine their relatedness with other aboriginal populations, both extinct and extant.

(https://socialsciences.mcmaster.ca/anth ... wfoundland)

3.) Project

Biomolecular archaeology study of past aboriginal populations in Eastern Canada

Vaughan Grimes Hendrik N Poinar Ana T. Duggan+1 more collaborator Alison J.T. Harris Stephanie Marciniak

Institutions:
Memorial University of Newfoundland, McMaster University, Stockholm University, Pennsylvania State University

Goal:

In 1829, Shanawdithit, a member of the Beothuk died of tuberculosis in St. John's, leading to the cessation of this distinct cultural group. But who were the Beothuk of Newfoundland? Do any of their genes 'live-on' today in possible descendents? Can we identify biological and cultural relationships between the Beothuk and the prehistoric Maritime Archaic Amerindians (MAI)? Our over-arching aim is to better understand the biocultural and genetic context of the Beothuk and MAI and to do so we have assembled an interdisciplinary collaborative research team that will address the above questions using ethnographic and ethnohistorical documentation, genetics, and bone and tooth chemistry analyses and descriptions. This project will shed new light on the cultural and genetic relationship of past aboriginal peoples and add to our knowledge of the peopling of northeastern North America.
(Research Gate: https://www.researchgate.net/project/Bi ... laborators)

For any layman reader or armchair researcher with a general interest in recent and/or future developments in the ongoing Beothuk aDNA study it is highly recommended that the reader subscribe to and/or follow published Newsletter postings of the Beothuk Institute Inc. (http://beothukinstitute.ca/newsletters/#project). Here is a snippet extracted from the 2014 BI Newsletter to give the researcher an idea of how the project is developing: ".....The funds have been granted for Maritime Archaic and Beothuk. The DNA extraction for Innu and Mi’kmaq, will require a separate application."

As referenced before the researcher should expect more NA A, C, D, & X mtDNA full genome sequences in the MAI sample collection (Jelsma, J. (2000). A Bed of Ochre-where mtDNA B, or 9bp delet was not detected in the collection)(http://www.rug.nl/research/portal/ publications/a-bed-of-ochre(2ad3aaf0-7c15-46b5-b5c4-2f9259fd238f).html). Furthermore, one should expect higher resolution of the MAI-Beo mtDNA mitogenome phylogenetics-phylogeography, with deeper haplotype subclades classified therein-unlike the mtDNA HVRI analysis of the 2007 Beo (n=2) sameple collection (Demsaduit hgC, Nonosabasutt hgX) (Kuch et al. 2007, AJPA 132(4):594-604(https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17205549). It would interesting to see if the BI & ADNAC, McMaster University transfer the genomes over to the 1000 Genomes Project & Simons Genome Diversity Project, which can one day be accessed by customers through one of the many commercial genetic genealogy testing companies, or Gedmatch transfer of SNP raw data for analysis according to the algorithmic calculators or predictors of each model thereof-although my guess is that BI will hold onto proprietary rights by offering a deep ancestry testing kit to the general public to determine any degree of shared remote ancestry based on ancestry-informative or biogeographic ethnic origin SNPs, so as to build a consumer base of atDNA data to promote further foundational research & revenue generation to subsidize operational costs of Res&Dev. It is interesting to note that most current genetic genealogy testing companies offer 700-750,000 SNP AIMs through Next Gen Illumina chip sequencing in their targeted arrays, while the Reich lab at Harvard can target 30-40 million SNPs.
(http://genetics.med.harvard.edu/reichla ... Nature.pdf).

With the advent of Third Gen parallel processing of genome sequences on the horizon, & advances in opening up unknown frontiers in non-recombining (non)-functional or "junk DNA" (~80.0% human genome), and its interplay in AIM evolutionary genetics-genomics, will make current full genome DNA testing (10-20 million SNPs) as offered by TribeCode or Viaguard-Accumetrics will be antiquated in 10-20 years from now. It will be like comparing the mathematical physics of Newtonian Mechanics to Quantum Gravity, or arithmetic to Ramanujan modular partition functions!


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 Post subject: Re: Labrador Innu (Mont-Nask) & Inuit DNA Studies
 Post Posted: Wed Jan 18, 2017 8:52 pm 
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Looking at the Piper’s Hole NL Mc-Mont kin group as a whole with attested connections to Beo kin groups emanating from the Clode Sound-Gander Bay, BB area the evidence suggests that some NL Red Indian families from the east with ancient connections to Piper’s Hole-Black River watershed areas had strong ties to in situ NL Mc-Mont kin groups (namely Michel/Agathe, Bernard/Pekitualuet, John/Baptiste) (a Lab Mont connection is well established in the research literature for the Bernard, John, & Mitchell families, as well as oral traditions for the Paul & Barrington families) suggesting that intermarriage between both NL Mc-Lab Mont & Beo ethnic groups was already well established for the Piper’s Hole extended kin group as early as ca. 1730-60 (or even earlier if one theorizes based on existing circumstantial and emerging archaeological evidence that the Piper's Hole, PB group is nothing more than a mere extension of the Stock Cove-Frenchman's Island, TB South group, that later migrated NNW to The Beaches, BB and thereafter Boyd's Cove, Exploits River, NDB, the former emigrating from TB South ca. 1660-70, as per radiocarbon dating at Stock Cove, TB). A migratory pulse or push eastward with a shift in the centre of gravity for the traditional domain of ancient Beo occupation into the Clode Sound, BB watershed area ca. 1774-84 may have resulted from the capture of John August at RI Lake in 1768. The evidence to date seems to suggest that the Piper's Hole, PB group had a long-standing or ancient occupation in this area culminating in the 1816-7 occupation of Red Indian Pond, Piper's Hole River, PB and later displaced emigres residing at Trinity, TB North ca. 1817-22. The evidence to date seems to suggest that the mixed Piper’s Hole Mc-Mont-Beo group going back to ca. 1816-22 was Mc-Mont on the paternal side and mixed WE-Beo (or part-Beo) on the maternal side, with self-ascribed ethnic, cultural and linguistic identification fluctuating among its members between Mont and Beo depending on the situational circumstances.

What evidence is there for a Montagnais (or Mountaineer) connection in the Piper’s Hole watershed area? According to Alphonse Barrington (s/o Alphonsus Barrington Sr., grandson of John Barrington Sr. of Piper’s Hole, PB) there was an old family tradition preserved among the Paul family of Badger Brook, NDB to the effect that the Pauls and Barringtons of same said place had a Montagnais (or Mountaineer) connection from Labrador. He told me on one occasion while I was visiting him at Bliss Murphy Centre, Health Sciences Centre, St. John’s (January 2005), that his father [Alphonse Barrington Sr.] told him as a young man that one of the Pauls (probably Andrew Paul) came up to him [Alphonse Sr.] and said “You guys are related to us, you guys are Mountaineers from Labrador”. For references to James John & Peter John as Mounatineer Indians the reader is directed to Howley (1915). Further references to the mixed or dual ethnic origins of the NL Mc-Mont can be found in Speck (1922) and cross-references therein. The Mountaineer (or Lab Montagnais) Indian connection for the John (Baptiste) as well as Michel (Agathe) (alter Mitchell) and Bernard (Pekitualuet) patrilines has been duly noted in the existing research literature. For a Mont connection in the Bernard patriline the reader is directed to the following Holy Cross excerpt:

SAQAMAW Joe Bernard. Saqamaw Joe was born in 1812 and died in 1900. He “ruled as Chief from Maurice’s death (1880) until Reuben took office (1900 A.D.)”. Kji Saqamaw John Denys (Denny) swore in Saqamaw Joe Bernard in 1880. According to the Holy Cross Annual, 2nd edition, he “…was a mountaineer Indian from Labrador. He wore a full flowing beard, which the Micmacs did not do”. He married a (Innu?) woman, (Hannah Ann John?). Bernard’s Brook is named after him. His sister Sarah was married to Maurice Lewis and this may have qualified him to act as qualify as Saqamaw, officially or otherwise, or he may have been related to the Lewis family /Louis family and the Morris line both, who appears to have been from Labrador (http://www.oocities.org/pilip/saqamaq.html" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;). For a Mont connection in the Michel (Agathe) patriline the reader is directed to the following well-researched and detailed website (http://www.vcn.bc.ca/~fgp/" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;).

Other ethnographic evidence that points to a suspected Mountaineer connection in the Piper’s Hole watershed area include:

1.) use of dog-sled traction among the Bernard & John families from as recorded in the 1863 overland McKay Northern Mail Route survey from Piper’s Hole, PB to Exploits, NDB, which may have been borrowed through contact with Lab Mont-Nask or mixed Lab Inuit-Innuat (Mont-Nask); 2.) similarities in design features of snowshoes for both groups which cluster outside NL Mc design parameters, but align closer to Lab Mont ones; and 3.) the place name Husky (or Huskie) Outlook (Shoprock) as if reflecting Eskimo (Indian), perhaps a circumlocutionary or periphrastic reference to either Lab Montagnais (Mountaineer) or perhaps even Newfoundland Red Indian (Beo), where both groups were closely associated among NL Mc speakers as belonging to Saqanaq ("People of the Saguenay", or "River Outlet People") or Oqwatnukewaq (Northern People).

So the question remains: how can bioarchaeologists differentiate or filter out any differences between putative Beo and Lab Mont-Nask atDNA genomic profiles, especially given that both groups are believed to have diverged from a common protoancestral cultural group or contiuum in SE Labrador ca. 400-700AD, with continued intermarriage or suspected gene flow occuring right up to the time period 1760-1830 (8-10 Gens)? At this point one should air on the side of caution in adding too much weight to the available aDNA samples in the upcoming comparative Beo aDNA study, in the event that future DNA test results do not match family oral traditions and ethnographic-ethnohistoric evidence. Until Lab Mont-Nask DNA samples have been collected and genomes reconstructed with resulting addition to the Beo database, it may be premature at present to make any predictions on the bio-geographic ethnic origins of the mixed NL Mc-Mont families with a distant Beo connection (1760-1830) emanating from the Piper’s Hole-Black River watershed areas. I am confident though that future atDNA testing of Lab Innuat (Mont-Nask) will close the intersecting or overlapping circles connecting the dots to account for the diverse genealogical history of the Piper’s Hole NL Mc-Mont kin groups. I sincerely believe that the upcoming Mont-Nask DNA samples are the missing link in solving the puzzle on the origins of this so called Eastern Beo splinter group, with origins in the Piper’s Hole, PB-Clode Sound, BB watershed area-the same extended kin group witnessed at Red Indian Pond & Shoprock, Indian Scrape, Piper’s Hole (1816-7)! The remnants of this splinter group may have migrated to Trinity, TB North 1817 under the protection of Peter Brazil Sr. (NL Mc-Mont) and was last seen there during the summer of 1822, and were believed to have migrated back into the Piper's Hole watershed area ca. 1822-3. In the meantime, it will be interesting to see the final published research paper on Beo-Maritime Archaic Indian and Beo-NL Mc-Mont in the coming years.

With this research question in mind the dedicated or interested reearcher-lay reader should keep in mind some of the following limitations or rather precautions for consideration in using aDNA studies to test and/or prove remote shared ancestry from a suspected distant uniparental Beothuk or even a Labrador Innuat (Mont-Nask) ancestor going back ca. 1790-1830:

1.) while 21 Beo aDNA samples is a modest foundational start in learning about the ancient reconstructed population history of this enigmatic group it is still not enough to meet the minimum requirements of app. 45-50 aDNA samples set forth in the academic community among bioarchaeologists-archaeogeneticists to establish a non-biased representative sampling baseline for analysis to give a clear picture of the biodiversity in the ancient population history of the given group;

2.) in all probability the majority of skeletal remains in the database are pre-contact (700-1497), with only a small percentage being late post-contact (1760-1819), so the diversity within the group would have been substantially altered through bottleneck effects or reduction in genetic diversity, with resulting founder effects resulting from pos-contact migration events, intermarriage with neighbouring groups, and as such it may be too early to make any definitive statements about Beo population history ... Likewise, the reconstructed calibrated radiocarbon dates for the Beo aDNA samples covers a time period extending from 700AD (Little Passage)-1819AD (app. 1300 years) (late contact Beo), so that gives app. 1 Beo sample on average for every 61.9..years or 2-3 Gens. If one were to estimate the population of the founding Little Passage immigrant groups at app. 150 during the initial immigration phase from SE Labrador in ca. 700 AD w/ 30-40 members per band coming over with a death rate equalizing the birth rate where an average life expectancy gives app. 45-50 years there would exist app. 300 tribal members in 100 years (4 Gens), or 300 x 13 for 1300 years or 3,900 tribal members in total-so the 21 skeletal samples gives 21/3900 or 0.00538462…, or 0.5% of the variation that once existed in the ethnic group. Note that this is a lower population estimate-the figure could be higher in the range of 150-300 as a founder which would elevate the results 2x, and ½ the percentage of genomic variation. In all probability, like any other known human group, the Beothuk were not a homogeneous ethnic group, but incorporated members of neighbouring Eastern and Central Algonquian kin & WE groups. In other words, some Beo kin groups such as those from Red Indian Lake, NDB, were more conservative in intermarrying among other Beo kin groups while other less conservative ones such as the Piper’s Hole-Clode Sound one, intermarried with NL Mc-Montgnais and Lab Mont ones, while still others incorporated WE captives;

3.) not all NL Red Indian or Beo tribal members who ever existed were directly or closely related to either Demasduit or Nonosabasutt (late contact RI representatives emanating from the RI Lake area)-like any other human group there is just as much or more atDNA genomic variation within related groups (linguistic-ethnic) as there are between neighbouring non-related groups. Shanawdithit’s testimony confirms that there were app 72 survivors at the time of Buchan’s visit consisting of 3 encampments-a main camp plus two peripheral ones (Marshall 1998:280) suggesting that the exodus or diaspora was already underway by 1811, while the encampment partitioning suggests some sort of intra-group hierarchization along clan and/or ethnic lines-the existing ethnohistoric and ethnographic evidence underscores the reality of group fissioning or bifurcation resulting from conflicts or disputes, such as infringement on family hereditary hunting-fishing territorial claims, violations of cultural taboos, accusations of shamanism, wife stealing, clan factionalism, blood feud, etc.…., where Beo kin groups would have split off and separated.

As a summary, one has to admit to that there are still a lot of unanswered questions regarding the origins and fate of the Beothuk. Likewise, one has to admit that there next to nothing known about the dynamics and internal composition of the Eastern Splinter Group of Beo survivors, extending then from John Pond (Sa'patistek, or Sambadista)-Mollyguajeck, Gander Bay to Clode Sound, BB-Piper's Hole River, PB. This area within the Bay de Nord Wilderness Reserve has not been explored in depth through archaeological surveying, not alone follow up digs-so we know nothing about this vast tract or swathe of land, which served as an Old Indian Trail or route of entry into the interior from Piper's Hole, PB to Red Indian Lake, NDB for both NL Mc-Mont and Beo for millennia. We also know nothing about the ancient Red Indian campsites of Red Indian Pond (Mekwe'jitewey Qospem/Welo'tm) and Goose Pond (Tqali'j Qospem), Piper's Hole River, PB-until of course more funding and human resource personnel have been allocated for archaeological surveying. We have to humbly admit even with all of our advances in aDNA reconstructive genomics that there is still a lot that we do not not know about the internal population history such as migration-settlement history and their interactions through trade and intermarriage with neighbouring Eastern and Central Algonquian kin groups. Even after the upcoming official publication of the collaborative research project paper, a future discovery of more skeletal remains will invariably change the research paradigm as new information comes to light to change existing viewpoints and knowledge base. Future advances in aDNA sequencing technologies that will enable decoding of junk DNA (app. 80.0% of the genome) as well as more efficient ways of teasing out aDNA from eDNA sources will force a rewriting or reonstitution of upcoming discoveries-the future of aDNA research looks promising and exciting.

As a postscript, I am confident that future DNA studies will shed more light on the enigmatic origins of the mixed NL Mc-Mont kin groups from Piper's Hole, PB!


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 Post subject: Re: Labrador Innu (Mont-Nask) & Inuit DNA Studies
 Post Posted: Thu Jan 19, 2017 11:48 am 
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As a post-script, I will submit a partial, though detailed, etymological analysis of two Beo ethnic group descriptors, namely the Beo endonym <Shawatha'rott> "NL Red Indian or Beothuk, name for themselves", and Beo ethnonym <Shaudamunk> or <Shaunamunc> "Labrador Innuat or Montagnais", to suggest that both may in fact derive from the same historical source, perhaps being mere dialectal variants of a single ethnonym-the former an r-dialect endonym and the latter an n-dialect ethnonym. While the historical comparative reconstruction will not be exhaustive to the point of meeting minimum requirements for publication in a peer-reviewed scholarly journal like Diachronica, it will lay the preliminary foundation for future work on the reconstructed etymology and semantics. The anthropological linguistic evidence, albeit fragmentary and somewhat contradictory, does suggest that both of these onomastic etyma may in all probability be somehow related. Likewise, a redacted or amended etymological reconstruction (lexico-semantic) of the Beo endonym <Beothu(c)k> will be attempted, which takes into account more of semantically related cognates from the surviving Beo vocabulary corpus.

Anthropological linguistics aside, until the upcoming comparative Maritime Archaic Indian-Beothuk aDNA and thereafter NL Mc, Lab Mont-Nask and NL Red Indian DNA studies are completed in the next 3-5 years there is absolutely nothing further to comment on here. To do so would be tantamount to fringe guess work or borderline speculation. Furthermore, neither I nor any one of my family members have expressed an active interest in pursuing crowd-sourcing genetic genealogy testing further to determine any degree of distant (7-8 Gen) uniparental Mont-Nask or for that fact (however controversial) Beo ancestry. I found the answers that I was looking for and I can proudly say that I am very satisfied with the recent 3 atDNA test results. Although the range may seem somewhat low, an estimated bio-geographic ethnic origin percentage of 1.0%-1.5% is exactly what is predicted for a test participant having 2 ancestors on each side going back 7-8 Gens. This chapter on genetic genealogy relating to proving a distant NA-EA ancestry for my family and I is closed for now.


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 Post subject: Re: Labrador Innu (Mont-Nask) & Inuit DNA Studies
 Post Posted: Mon Jan 30, 2017 12:27 am 
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Here is an extract for a 2014 SMBE conference presentation talk relating to an aDNA study conducted on the so called "Red Paint People" (Moorehead Phase) skeletal remains excavated from the Nevin site (shell midden at Blue Hill Falls), Maine, U.S.A..
Ancient DNA Insights into the Population History of Seafaring Mid-Holocene Hunter-Gatherers on the Gulf of Maine

Alexander Kim 1 ,2, Susanne Nordenfelt1 ,2, Nadin Rohland1 ,2, Nick Patterson1 ,2, Michèle Morgan3, Steven LeBlanc3, David Reich1 ,2
1Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA, 2Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA, 3Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA

The Red Paint People, a remarkable manifestation of the Moorehead Phase (c. 4500-3800 YBP), are an enigmatic pre-Columbian culture of northeastern North America famed for their distinctive technology and elaborate, strikingly characteristic ceremonial practices — including ochre-laden burials, ritual ground-slate bayonets, the hunting of swordfish and other marine megafauna, and what are potentially the oldest known tumuli and toggling harpoons ever discovered on the continent. As one of the earliest maritime cultures on the eastern seaboard of North America, their extraordinary flowering, abrupt archaeological disappearance, and situation in a long-range transportation network of artifacts and raw materials stretching as far as the Great Lakes evokes numerous questions about seaborne dispersal capability, coast-interior connectivity, and the extents of genetic continuity or overturn into and through the Archaic of New England and Atlantic Canada. We report, for the first time, mitochondrial and preliminary genome-wide autosomal data from ancient Moorehead Phase skeletal remains recovered from the Nevin site, a shell midden at Blue Hill Falls, Maine, and situate this locality and its inhabitants in the context of earliest North American settlement, patterns of gene flow at continental and subcontinental scales, and the panorama of social and ecological specialization by forager populations along Holocene North America's Atlantic littoral.
http://racehist.blogspot.ca/2014/06/smb ... racts.html" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

SMBE (Society for Molecular Biology & Evolution) 2014 Presentations
http://imgpublic.mci-group.com/ie/PCO/O ... rIndex.pdf" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

As a postscript, follow-up on-line research failed to recover a formal academic write-up or research publication in a public-access scholarly journal summarizing details of the research findings. What seems to be important here is the fact that aDNA was extracted and sequenced through PCR amplification, but the results have not been published to date. With regard to answering research questions on deep ancestral origins and/or affinity through gene flow between and among this ancient group and neighbouring Eastern and Central Algonquian groups, the large-scale genetic landscape cannot be determined due to a lack of published comparative research data on aDNA. As a research question, it would be very interesting to determine if and/or how the so called "Moorehead Phase Red Paint People" complex may or may not be related to NL-Lab Maritime Archaic Indian groups, and later Recent Indian Maritime groups such as Labrador Innuat (Mont-Nask), NL Red Indian (Beothuk) (now extinct), NS Mc and NL Mc-Mont. It would be interesting indeed to see how the "Red Paint People" fit into the genetic landscape or tapestry of the Northeast Amerindian cultural continuum. It would answer some long-standing speculation and controversial debate among some anthropologists and archaeologists about proposed ancient connections suggesting continuity between this group and later post-contact Eastern Algonquian groups such as Penobscot (Eastern Abenaki), and perhaps even NL Red Indian (Beothuk)-where some archaeologists have noted several superficial similarities in lithic assemblages and stone stool kits between both groups! I could be wrong here, but my suspicion is that the Red Paint People (Moorehead Phase) are not closely related to NL-Lab Maritime Archaic Indian groups, and by extension later Recent Indian groups such as NL Little Passage-Cow Head (later Beothuk) kin groups, despite some ancecdotal oral traditions recorded among NS Mc at the turn of the 20th century which suggest that the ancestors of the NL Red Indians once inhabited Cape Breton, NS (Wallis & Wallis 1955).

Ps. here is an excellent journal article or research paper reference for anyone interested in reading more about the Red Paint Pople:

Moorehead, W. K.. (1913). "The Red-Paint People of Maine", American Anthropologist, 15(1): 33-47.

https://www.jstor.org/stable/659556?seq ... b_contents


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 Post subject: Re: Labrador Innu (Mont-Nask) & Inuit DNA Studies
 Post Posted: Tue Mar 28, 2017 8:04 am 
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The following is an extract outlining a conference paper abstract on comparative Maritime Archaic-Beothuk mtDNA full genome sequencing to be presented at an upcoming AAPA (American Association of Physical Anthropologists):

The 86th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists (2017)
Programs > 2017 > Podium Session > Podium Abstract

A mitochondrial DNA study of the Beothuk and Maritime Archaic, extinct aboriginal populations from Newfoundland and Labrador

ANA T. DUGGAN1,2, ALISON HARRIS3, STEPHANIE MARCINIAK1,2, INGEBORG MARSHALL3, VAUGHAN GRIMES3 and HENDRIK POINAR1,2.
1Anthropology, McMaster University, 2McMaster Ancient DNA Centre, McMaster University, 3Archaeology, Memorial University of Newfoundland
April 20, 2017 8:15, Balcony I/J

The culture and wisdom of aboriginal populations are under threat in modern society and we know even less about aboriginal populations of the past. With a combined approach of genetic and isotopic data, we are attempting to answer questions of the settlement of the east coast of North America and the relationship between two populations, the Maritime Archaic and Beothuk, who lived in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador from approximately 7500 – 150 YBP. The Maritime Archaic people were resident in the area from around 7550 - 3200 YBP while the Beothuk, who were the European contact population, appear in the archaeological record only around 2000 YBP and are believed to have gone culturally extinct with the death of Shanawdithit in AD 1829. We have recovered the complete mitochondrial genomes of 75 individuals belonging to these cultures and the data indicate a surprising degree of diversity within these populations but also suggest that there was no maternal continuity between the groups, indeed they may not have even shared a common source population. This project has broad implications for our knowledge of the peopling of the Americas, especially given the dearth of available data from the northeast, and on a local level allows us to reconstruct the ancestry and history of the people who came before. While genetic data cannot recreate cultural information, it can inform us as to the history of these populations and allow us to examine their relatedness with other aboriginal populations, both extinct and extant.

This work is funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada.

[End of Extract]

(http://meeting.physanth.org/program/201 ... rador.html)

Postscript:

Following is the present researcher's interpretation of the pending conference paper. The researcher with a general interest or research focus in the specialized research area should expect a full printed research paper summarizing the final mtDNA test results with interpretation-analyses-perhaps in AJPA (American Journal of Physical Anthropology)-in the coming 3-6 mths (July-October, 2017). The recent research findings beg the question: if the Newfoundland Red Indian (Beothuk) cultural complex (2000BP-1819/29) are not descended from NL-Lab Maritime Archaic complexes, then to what Intermediate Indian (Little Passage-Point Revenge) emanating from SE Labrador complex are they descended? It remains to be proven if and/or how NL Beothuk are related at the level of mtDNA full genome sequencing, and by extension YDNA SNP-STR, atDNA and xDNA, to contemporary Lab Innuat (Mont-Nask)! Recent published research findings on comparative studies of Beo and NL Mc mtDNA HVR-I samples furthermore excludes the possibility of a recent shared common ancestry between both groups (Pope et al 2011:116).

Primary Source: Mitogenomic and microsatellite variation in descendants of the founder population of Newfoundland: high genetic diversity in an historically isolated population A.M. Pope, S.M. Carr, K.N. Smith, and H.D. Marshall. 2011. Genome 54: 110-119.

(https://www.mun.ca/biology/scarr/Pope,_ ... 54,110.pdf)


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 Post subject: Re: Labrador Innu (Mont-Nask) & Inuit DNA Studies
 Post Posted: Tue Oct 10, 2017 4:28 am 
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Biomolecular archaeology study of past aboriginal populations in Eastern Canada
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 Post subject: Re: Labrador Innu (Mont-Nask) & Inuit DNA Studies
 Post Posted: Mon Oct 16, 2017 3:54 pm 
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Thanks for your input, it is appreciated. Please note a recent aDNA study of MAI and Beothuk mtDNA genomes, related to this query.

Duggan. Anna T. et al (2017). Genetic Discontinuity between the Maritime Archaic and Beothuk Populations in Newfoundland, Canada. Current Biology

(http://www.cell.com/current-biology/ful ... 60-9822(17)31091-6)


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 Post subject: Re: Labrador Innu (Mont-Nask) & Inuit DNA Studies
 Post Posted: Thu Oct 19, 2017 2:33 pm 
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I will post a detailed follow-up query and critique of how this ongoing Beo-MA comparative aDNA or archaeogenetic research study and more Mont-Nask DNA sampling meshes or ties in as a related thread to any future archaeogenetic research study on Stock Cove, TBSouth with implications for continued site recognition-protection, ancient human migration-settlement history (both Beothuk and early Ango-Irish settler), and ecotourism-guiding spin off benefits for neighboring communities.


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 Post subject: Re: Labrador Innu (Mont-Nask) & Inuit DNA Studies
 Post Posted: Thu Oct 19, 2017 3:32 pm 
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An interesting and curious note about the Beo ancient mtDNA study: no reference is given in the Beothuk Mortuary Sites (sic.) comparative aDNA study for the two clusters or sets of skeletal fragments excavated and later pilfered from two Placentia Bay archaeological sites, namely Hangman's Island, and Indian Burial Place, Long Island, PB. These samples are referenced in Howley (1915) and Marshall (1998). I don't know if this omission is due to an intentional or accidental error resulting from failure to sequence adequate aDNA from the samples due to contamination or or degradation, or if the samples were sequenced and the aDNA test results were subsequently omitted. Either way, the PB samples with obvious and implied connection to the Piper's Hole-Black River watershed areas, have not been discussed. To amend or appease this slight oversight, the authors should have included reference to any and all ancient DNA samples that could not be sequenced, or for whatever ethnopolitical reason have been avoided discussion. A curious but not surprising result!


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 Post subject: Re: Labrador Innu (Mont-Nask) & Inuit DNA Studies
 Post Posted: Sat Nov 04, 2017 12:16 pm 
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Great stuff, Pikeman.
Is the "PB" used in your posts a reference to Port Blandford?


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 Post subject: Re: Labrador Innu (Mont-Nask) & Inuit DNA Studies
 Post Posted: Sat Nov 04, 2017 3:18 pm 
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No, my friend an abbreviation for Placentia Bay (PB).


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 Post subject: Re: Labrador Innu (Mont-Nask) & Inuit DNA Studies
 Post Posted: Tue Nov 07, 2017 2:35 pm 
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Hi Phen, here is some additional information that may help to shed some light on the strategic importance of the Port Blandford, BB area in highlighting the possibility of late-contact (ca. 1780-90) Beo occupation in this area. The key circumstantial points of evidence which suggests a late Beo occupation in the local area are as follows:

i.) the location of a coarse-grain red ochre (hematite or iron oxide) outcrop at South West River, near the TCH (Trans Canada Highway) and bridge would have served as an attractive site for local RI or Beo kin groups;

ii.) note that a brook draining from Red Indian Pond, Piper's Hole River watershed area, empties into South West River, located upriver from the TCH red ochre outcrop-the site, hitherto unexplored through or an archaeological survey or follow-up dig, is believed to be the site of a late contact (1816-17) Beo seasonal encampment or sanctuary, where an Eastern Beo splinter group who presumably branched off earlier from the core Red Indian Lake extended kin group, were hiding out under the protection of local NL Mc-Mont families emanating from Nukamkia'ji'jk, Piper's Hole River, PB;

iii.) its has been speculated that John August, NL Red Indian captive, may have frequented the bottom of BB, such as Clode Sound-South West River watershed area, as late as 1788, while visiting kin there during his tenured leaves from the seasonal in-shore fishery at Trinity, TB North;

iv.) Howley (1915, 230) speculates or rather alludes to the possibility that RI groups may have frequented Clode Sound while hunting bottle-nosed whales, for which according to Shanawdithit's oral testimony RI Lake kin groups had a hereditary totemic staff representing a whale's tail; and

v.) the role of South West River/Brook has been noted throughout various published literary sources and scholarly research articles as a portal opening up the interior to NL Mc hunters-guides, in their search of RI survivors (see Howley 1915 and references therein)-question remains by logical inference, why would it not have also been used by local RI kin groups inhabiting the Clode Sound, BB-Piper's Hole River, PB RI kin groups?

To make a long story short or to avert a long-winded spiel, the area of Clode Sound, BB, as well as neighboring Red Indian Pond, PHR, PB, deserves further archaeological surveying and/or follow-up digging. Furthermore, by analogical extension, certain families of Anglo-Irish descent w/ a suspected distant uniparental Beo connection emanating from Trinity, TB North and Clode Sound, BB, should be entitled to participate in voluntary whole genome (10,000,000+ SNP) sequence testing, if and/or when the opportunity avails in the near future w/ The Beothuk Institute & McMaster University Ancient DNA Centre-even if the predicted NA/NE Siberian biogeographic ethnic origin percentages are in the order of app. 0.5%-1.0% (50,000-100,000 SNPs)! If its there its there, and if gene flow resulting from intermarriage w/ a Beo captive or survivor going back ca. 1789-1829 did happen and can be detected through whole genome sequencing then both Anglo-Irish and FN/NA kin groups or communities should acknowledge and commemorate this fact!


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 Post subject: Re: Labrador Innu (Mont-Nask) & Inuit DNA Studies
 Post Posted: Tue Nov 07, 2017 10:18 pm 
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Thanks Pikeman!
Let's hope that research/sequencing is forthcoming very soon. It seems as if big things are about to happen.
Please keep us updated!
Steve


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 Post subject: Re: Labrador Innu (Mont-Nask) & Inuit DNA Studies
 Post Posted: Thu Nov 09, 2017 2:01 pm 
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Yeh I’ll post new information when it becomes available on the topic. Whole genome atDNA (recombining) sequencing on the Beo and MAI aDNA samples and comparison of those results to living FN and Inuit groups will answer (and raise) a lot of questions on NL NA/FN ancestry. I’ll post a brief commentary soon on Yamnaya (Bronze Age) atDNA and how the UP (Upper Paleolithic) ANE (Ancient North Eurasian) component links up with Karitiana reference population sample DNA. Some of the Yamnaya Western Eurasian ANE markers are also found in Karitiana NA samples from South America so the picture is not as clear as some researchers claim or genetic genealogy testing companies suggest. Thanks for your input and interest.


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 Post subject: Re: Labrador Innu (Mont-Nask) & Inuit DNA Studies
 Post Posted: Sat Nov 18, 2017 3:52 pm 
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Here are some additional research notes on the Yamnaya (Metal-Bronze Age) thread referenced earlier and how it may tie into Paleoamerican (or Paleoindian) aDNA:

Yamnaya DNA:

If one were to look at an estimated Bronze Age biogeographic ethnic origin percentage as calculated through the proprietary algorithmic calculator of FTDNA for a typical West Eurasian (or European) like myself it would show app. 12.0% Metal Age Warrior, while Gedmatch.com would show anywhere from app. 19.0-20.0% Yamnaya (or Andornovo-Afanasievo) BOGE admixture percentage. It is known according to the published research literature at least that the reconstructed, sequenced atDNA genome of Yamnaya (a founding Bronze Age ethnic group originating in the Black-Caspian Sea of Western Eurasia, or the fringe of West Siberia, and a source poplulation of PIE groups) samples show app. 50.0% of ANE (Ancestral or Ancient North Eurasian) DNA. As any researcher who is well versed in the role of ANE (an UP-Upper Paleolithic proto-population of Mal'ta-Bur'at, Lake Baikal, South Siberia) in contributing to the gene pools or genomes of contemporary NA-FN (and by inference founder Beringian Standstill Paleoindian groups) is aware, some of the Yamnaya Bronze Age ANE components may harbour ancient South Siberian-Paleoindian atDNA markers. Conversely, extending in the opposite direction as a corollary, this phenomenon may explain why some West Germanic (emanating from Germany-Austria) FTDNA Family Finder testees or participants show app. 1.0-3.0% NA ancestry in admixture estimates in atDNA tests offered through contemporary commerical genetic genealogy testing compnaies, and conversely why Lab NA-Inuit test participants show elevated Metal Age Warrior percentages through FTDNA. As but one example, I have permission from a personal close friend of mine who took a Family Finder atDNA test through FTDNA in 2016, whose mother (a pure blood Inuit) originates from an Inuit community in Northern Labrador. Her 2016 atDNA BGEO percentages showed app. 25.0% East Asian, 16.0% NA (New World) and 3.0% Central Asia...with the rest Western European. But when the FTDNA Family Finder algorithmic calculator was revised in 2017 the test results were amended showing a My Origin percentage breakdown of app. 25.0% East Asian & 25.0% NA (New World), with no Central Asia component. The interesting result of the FTDNA Family Finder test came when the 700,000 SNP markers were compared to the ancient skeletons found in the database through archaeological sites in Eurasia: non-European (or NA-Inuit) dropped from the expected app. 50.0% to 43.0%, while the Metal Age component spiked by 7.0% to offset the difference. So what does this test result tell us? It means that app. 7.0% of the NA markers referenced in the Karitiana-Surui-Xavante reference poplulation used as a proxy for calucating NA ancestry in the FTDNA Family Finder Ancient Origins test are of ANE origin!

Karitiana atDNA:

Raghavan, Skoglund & Willerslev (2013) estimate that app. 15-38% of the Karitiana NA (FTDNA proxy of New World reference poplulation) genome originates from this ancient UP (Upper Paleolithic) Western"ghost population" in Mal'ta-Bur'at and later AG-3 (Afontova Gora), Central-South Siberia (app. 24,000 BP-18,000BP).

(https://www.nature.com/articles/nature12736/)

These test results contrasts to a later whole genome study of Karitiana atDNA study by Skoglund et al. (2016) that suggests that Central-South American NA groups cluster closer to Australasian (Papua New Guinea, Australian Aborigenee, & Andaman Islanders), than to NE Siberian, Central Siberian, and Beringian groups.

(https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4982469/)

So what can the reader take away from these conflicting whole genome test results in attempting to determine the ancient source or founding population (s) of contemporary Native American groups? Essentially, the interdisciplinary research teams are still not in consensual agreement on which founding poplulation New World groups truly descend from! It seems that there may in fact be a South Asian and NE Asian migration-poplulation history involved in the peopling of the New World, as in agreement with what archaeologists and anthropologists are finding in ancient sites through North-South American, where North American PaleoIndian skeleta (eg., Kennewick Man, Wizards Beach Man, Spirit Cave Man, Horn Shelter Man,...) show reconstructed soft tissue craniofacial features clustering closer to West-Central Eurasian groups, while ancient Paleoindian skeleta (e.g., Lucia) from Central-South Amercia show closer affinities with South Australasian groups.

Beothuk aDNA:

So how does this translate to the upcoming Beo ancient DNA study and the ancient poplulation-migration history of Newfoundland?

One should expect the following atDNA test results for the whole genome sequences of the 19 Beo skeleta:

i.) 100.0% NA (New World) mtDNA;
ii.) 100.0% NA (New World) YDNA SNP; and
iii.) app. 89.0-90.0% (New World) atDNA-in keeping with what researchers are finding when they plug in the atDNA from the reconstructed whole genome sequences of other Paleoindian skeletal samples such as Clovis Anzick into FTDNA Family Finder calculators, which show app. 10.0-11.0% Finland or North Siberian (a residue of the ANE component alluded to before). It is highly unlikely that the 19 Beo skeletal samples under research investigation are of admixed Western Eurasian heritage, but in all likelihood are of "pure" NA background. There's very little reason to doubt that the Beo, inhabiting the easternmost fringe or periphery of the NA landscape or domain, as an earlier wave of migration, would show atDNA test results otherwise! It would also explain why some Beo reconstructed skeleta show a mixture of Western Eurasian-NA features, or why some early settlers alluded their features to Sapnish Gypsys (South Asian)! So essentially, to make a long story short, there won't be many surprises in the whole genome sequencing test results for the Beo atDNA when the final test results will be published in the public domain in the coming 3-4 years, say 2021-22! I also seriously doubt whether there will be any evidence for Viking (Scandinavian) atDNA introgression in the genome as suggested by previous published anthropological or ethnological research papers-the Beo mtDNA sequences are as far as I know in discrepancy of the Iceland mtDNA C1...haplotypes!


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